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 Georg Gangl is a doctoral student at the Centre for the Theoretical Studies of History. His dissertation job bears the title “Narration and also Colligation. On historiographical settings of ordering the past”.


georg.gangl <ät> medtox.org


When I was roughly 6 years old, I fell in love through history1. Tright here were momentous occasions taking place all approximately me at that time yet they did not spawn my interest in background. I have no memory to stop of around the implosion of the Soviet Union and the finish of the Eastern Bloc or the Yugoslav Wars that were raging only 50 kilometers south of my Austrian residence. What did stick in my memory and also fueled my imagination earlier in 1991 and for years to come was instead an educational children’s cartoon series around the history of humankind, which was then broadcast on Austrian public TV, Once Upon a Time… Man. The series is a production by Albert Barillé from 1978 for French public broadactors, originally titled Il était une fois… l"Homme. (The Germale variation that I watched as a son bears the title Es battle einmal … der Mensch. Similar to the English variation, it is a literal translation of the original French title).2

Rewatching the series currently virtually 30 years later and more than 40 years after its initial appearance, a collection of concerns that were of no worry to me as a child crossed my mind. Once Upon a Time… Man is an educational cartoon series about huguy history for children. That suggests it must present the understanding around the previous it offers, its primary educational contents, in a form proper to this taracquire audience, which arguably has actually quite different requirements and interests from an adult audience interested in background, not to soptimal of experienced historians. The medium of film itself and also the actual form liked as an animated cartoon series arguably likewise pressure some options on the presentation of that content.

In brief, what interested me this time roughly watching the series through my philosopher’s hat on was just how the epistemic good of informing truths about the human previous was packaged, ceded, and also possibly retracted or also distorted in the procedure of producing a product that is both attrenergetic and also educative for kids. In Once Upon a Time… Man epistemic, pedagogical, and entertainment ambitions all come together in the finished product, and also it is not clear from the outcollection how they relate and also impinge upon each various other or that the epistemic goals necessarily come out on optimal (or also should).

The goal of providing precise historic expertise should be uncontroversial to anyone that has had a look at the series, simply as tright here are obviously various other (valuable) objectives at play too. One such obvious non-epistemic goal is providing entertainment for youngsters if perhaps only as a precondition or means for the actual acquisition of expertise. Another is orientation and also perspective in matters that are deemed important for the advancement of kids, such as inquiries of moral behaviour and political perspective. The means background is presented in a children’s series is in this feeling very various from the discourse of disciplinary historiography via its specific expert norms wbelow pedagogical and entertainment considerations normally play a minor role at ideal. Tbelow are overlaps, though, via develops of public background as it is presented in museums and also through assorted forms of “histotainment” as generally seen on TV. These frequently join the goal of imparting understanding together various other pedagogical purposes and also providing entertainment, just as Once Upon a Time… Man does. (Museums often have actual study and also storage attributes as well.)

Forms of SelectivityOnce Upon a Time… Man is composed of 26 episodes that span the entirety history considering that Earth’s development even more than 4 billion years earlier up until the particular current of the production of the series (1978) and beyond. The last episode goes well beyond history as they and also we understand it and talks about the perhaps bleak future prospects of mankind, as they current themselves from the vantage suggest of 1978. While the series’ scope is large and also the general outlook evolutionary, talking around the at an early stage eons of Earth’s background, the age of the dinosaurs, various other hominids (Neanderthals), and also our species advancement takes up the first 2 episodes only, through the remaining 24 of them extending humale background, or a details segment of huguy background at that.3 

The segment of history of interemainder for the series is the advancement of human being, as conceived in the typical historiographies of the West. The narrative as such is not strictly Eurocentric as much as the start of human being is pertained to, as it is usual for narratives to begin outside of Europe where for a long time none of the usual hallmarks of world appeared. It is neverthemuch less a narrative of the West bereason after beginnings in the Center East human being shifts to Europe where it stays, a lot later just to be increased to Northern America. This is additionally the narrative that I learned in the exact same outline during my institution days, through amends made for the background of the Habsburg Monarchy, which plays no duty in the series.

Civilization starts in this story with sedentism, the domestication of beast and plant (episode 3), and the invention of creating in wider Mesopotamia and Egypt (episode 4). It waxes and wanes in its initially few centuries (episode 5) just to involved bloom in Ancient Greece and Rome where it reached a very first apex (episodes 6, 7). Then comes the Migration Period, which leads to the destruction of the Western Romale Empire and ushers in the early medieval period leading approximately the Carolingians and Charlemagne (episodes 8, 9). A short time later on, the Viemperors enter the scene via their pillaging of the rest of Europe (episode 10), and civilization is on the uptick aobtain through the start of renewed urbanization after the rotate of the first millennium (episode 13). Go into Quattrocento Italy and then the Renaissance—no story without Leonarcarry out and his exploits—from where on history diversifies and also deserves to be told in even more detail and parallel fashion (episode 14); recounting the maritime adendeavors of the Spanish conquista of the Americas (episode 15), the story of Elizabethan Era England also with Her Majesty’s privateers (episode 16), and the burgeoning of the Dutch United Provinces (episode 17). On to the 17th century, wright here social worries are becoming even more and also more pressing. Now we discover ourselves in the firm of Louis XIV., the Sun King , and his tremendous wide range that were squeezed out of France by taxes (episode 18), witness the times of Enlightenment after his passing (episodes 19, 20), through honorary cite of the Russia of Peter the Great, a modernizer in his own appropriate, and also march on to the Amerihave the right to Revolutionary War and the French Radvancement at the end of that century (episodes 21, 22). Thereafter the focus broadens even better and social and technological breakthroughs such as the Industrial Rdevelopment take centre phase rather of emperors and also conquests (episode 23). We are introduced to the mechanical and electrical wonders of the second half of the 1nine and also the beginning of the 20th century, to self-thrust locoactivity and also powered aircraft in the develop of trains, cars, and also planes, and also the upheavals they develop, not the leastern of them the making of impoveriburned functioning classes throughout the industrial centres of Europe (episodes 24, 25).

This is the technological and also commercial people that is critically scrutinized in the very last episode of the series (episode 26). In it, history is left behind and also the social anxieties of the 1970s come to be the centre of attention: eco-friendly pollution and the inhospitality of the modern-day metropolises, consumerism, overpopulation, and also the depletion of the planet’s sources. The episode even paints the dark scenario of the world being destroyed by mankind, through the Star Trek-like sci-fi coda that we, having actually get rid of strife and also divisions, will certainly live blisscompletely in external room by the year 2150, waiting for Planet to be habitable aacquire after the nuclear overkill. This even more sombre tale of human being or at least its end, spurred as it was by the genuine hazard of what was called the “nuclear holocaust” throughout the Cold War, is even baked right into the framing of the totality series. Its intro that replays huguy development and also social breakthrough in rapid forward ends via the scene of world scrambling for a rocket that takes off just prior to the world explodes. Not everyone renders it onto the rocket. This tragic scene made a large impression on me as a son and also the photo of the exploding Earth stuck to me ever before because, in stark contrast to the otherwise upbeat and optimistic tamong the totality series.4 

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Planet exploding as viewed in the end of the intro to eextremely episode.

The narrative presented is of the genre “The West and the rest”, through a rather specific political perspective owed to the 1970s and specific emphases and lacunae to it. An evident worry in eexceptionally such a narrative is the depiction of non-European individuals and cultures, or the absence thereof. It is not the case that all those peoples are omitted from the series. Some are introduced when communicating through Western powers and individuals that are reputed significant by the series. In this setup, the fate of Byzantium and also Spain introduces us to Mohammed and the Islamic caliphates (episode 8); the 13th century journeys of Marco Polo make us visit the China of Kublai Khan (episode 12); Cortez’s campaign brings us to the Aztec people at the brink of its devastation by the Spaniards (episode 15); and the voyperiods of the Mayflower offer us insights right into the lives of the Native Americans of Northern America (episode 21). There is no real conversation, even in this limited setting, of Africa, India, Australia or Oceania throughout the series. (Some, but not all, of these continents are pointed out in a passing sentence or two occasionally, though).

The depiction itself of those individuals and cultures is not mean-spirited or overtly nasty, though. While they draw on typical visual representations of Non-Europeans taken from public and also early american discourse–some of them insensitive and also also racist, particularly as soon as it pertains to the representation of black Africans and Native Americans–they are still shown as valuable component of mankind with no denigration of their cultural specificity. Cultural and also other achievements of those individuals are pointed out also.

Tbelow are additionally particular emphases and also lacunae once it pertains to the major focus of the series, the background of the (western) people, that seem greatly pedagogically motivated: Conflicts of significant intensity and suffering are visually softened as soon as depicted at all and given bit space as compared to other problems, specifically the closer we concerned the existing. Manifest destiny is discussed in a couple of sentences here and also there; the two World Wars of the last century obtain brief descriptions in the direction of the end of 2 episodes through not much detail or any kind of real portrayal of the horrors and also cruelty. The Hiroshima bomb is stated in line with the emphasis on the opportunity of a “nuclear holocaust”, the Shoah is not. Instead, the technological accomplishments of those times are highlighted and also offered the majority of display time. More than fifty percent of the episode that consists of the short account of the 2nd World War (episode 25) faces the background of aviation in the 20th century, and the episode that includes the First World War (episode 24) treats us mainly to a history of the locomotive and also auto. Blood and also injuries, as evident marks of enduring, are likewise missing from problems as much as they are depicted.

There is also at least one instance wright here tright here seems to be not just selectivity at occupational however wbelow tbelow are would be great epistemic factors not to incorporate a details story, which is given as if it were a fact: In episode 4, tales of the Old Testimony such as the Crossing of the Red Sea and The Judgment of Solomon are told as actual historic happenings, which is something of an oddity in comparichild through the rest of the series where biblical stories are not taken up anyeven more in any information at all. Without any additionally spiritual intent visible, it should reprimary something of a secret why these Bible tales were exactly included in the all at once account (through The Judgment of Solomon having actually ethical high quality I suppose but not the Crossing of the Red Sea).

By itself, selectivity of an account does not soptimal versus its epistemic goodness, rather the contrary. We cannot tell the history of whatever, even if we were in a place to understand it, and Once Upon a Time… Man does a good project of presenting knowledge around the select part of humale history it decided to tell, background from its earliest times to now, with many of the major steras of the advance of western world being spanned. There could even be some included worth to specifically this selection of historical episodes for the intfinished tarobtain audience are children in the core countries of the West whose own history in a feeling is being told in the series.The story is still that of the West, at the price of the remainder. This makes the depiction of non-European peoples second and also in some respects racist, as described over, if largely not viciously so. Assessing the overall epistemic goodness of the account, these two opposing aspects have to be weighed against each other. In my book, the assessment remains as a whole a positive one with the epistemic good of providing children a true account of (their own) past much outweighing the damages done by the racist depiction of “othered” individuals. Kids have the right to learn the majority of interesting historic stuff via the series, through its racist facets being incidental to the advance of the story. Especially as other societies and also individuals are normally described and illustrated respectcompletely through the problem mostly being the caricatures of their physical appearance, which in principle deserve to easily be corrected for, and not the focus on the West in and also of itself.

On an additional level, the selectivity seems to have actually pedagogical roots, as we have actually seen. It is mostly thought that kids should not be exposed to violence and also (excessive) suffering. This describes why the World Wars and also various other violent episodes of history are only discussed in passing and tright here is basically no mirroring of blood or serious injury in the series. It is my hunch that the emphasis that is rather put on technology—from Leonarperform to trains, cars, and airplanes—deserve to be described by the intfinished primary audience of the series: young boys. Aget, while such a focus is not without its very own worries as it reproduces sex stereoforms, just as the series itself is not without its share of such stereokinds, this selection delivers understanding on social history and also specifically the history of technology to a young audience. This pedagogically propelled lopsidedness of the account can be and also is on a regular basis amfinished in later on educational settings, such as middle and also high colleges, wbelow battles and other atrocities are taught as part of background curricula.

Lastly, tright here are the odd Old Testimony stories stated and also the future scenario of the destruction of Earth that have actually no immediate epistemic mooring and cannot be defended on such grounds. It is my impression that they were consisted of for pedagogical factors, particularly to imcomponent particular ethical and also political worths deemed central for the character breakthrough of youngsters. The explosion of the human being and also “nuclear holocaust” scenarios seem to be intfinished for sensitizing the young audience to the problems of their very own times as viewed from the perspective of the late 1970s. While coloured by specific conmessage of that time, many kind of of the issues increased are still with us this day, and some such as eco-friendly deterioration have actually also increased to political prominence and also urgency aobtain. These reflections, in any kind of case, take up an extremely little component of the series and also, while having no epistemic basis on their very own, do not interfere negatively via the historic knowledge that is being conferred in the series. In any type of sense, some of these values such as temperateness, open and hocolony discussion and also perseverance have the right to be seen as metacognitive worths and also skills that underpin to a details extent any open-ended truth-seeking discourse central to both science and society (on the values held by the technique of historiography, check out Tucker 2004).

We have viewed in this area just how the specific selection of the past that is thought about worth informing by the series is mediated by pedagogical pertains to about what is exciting and also correct to tell youngsters. Tright here is also a basic political and also honest impulse underlying the entirety series, which affects at leastern the basic framing of the story told. In this framework, many expertise about the previous is offered to youngsters with the series, one episode at a time. Now we have the right to to turn to how this content is actually put onto the display screen. Next to the goals of the series discussed so much, its entertaining character will certainly end up being particularly palpable.

Mise en ScèneWith films, and cartoons at that, being visual media there are specific scenic decisions that need to be taken, somepoint dubbed mise en scène in film theory. Even if the exact variety of world storming the Winter Palace or the Bastille are not well-known, in a film you must put a definite amount of people in the scene. Depicting those events5 The mise en scène of Once Upon a Time… Man adheres to values especially geared to its educational objectives and its young audience. The stories revolve about a main actors of 6 figures that recur in eincredibly episode in various styles and also clothing fitted to the times and also societies they are portraying. At the centre of the unfolding of history is Maestro, a bearded wise and old male who represents progress and also generally depicts a theorist, inventor, experienced or counselor of sorts yet not someone taking any kind of decisions of historical import. He is not instantly in power but comments on it and sees points going awry over and over aobtain, despite his continuous admonitions to the contrary. Almeans close to him, you have actually two plain guys, Adam and also Jumbo in the German version, that are hocolony and also do their finest to make perform under the circumstances they are dealt by background. Adam is the thoughtful one and also Jumbo the muscle that is nevertheless excellent and also honest. On the side of Adam stands Eva who is a caring mom but additionally a solid woguy. Eventually there are Klotz and das Ekel, their names definition somepoint choose uncouth fool and stinker in Germale, who are haughty and also vain and also always putting their own instant interests ahead of everything else. In trying to acquire their selfish goals, they are out to thwart the sincere life plans of the various other personalities.6

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The primary actors of six personalities throughout various historical durations (from left to right): Jumbo, Eva, Adam, Maestro, Klotz, das Ekel. In front of the previous three likewise stand also their boy versions.

Episodes are constructed in the form of providing general information around the moment and also subject of the episode prior to the actual mise en scène takes location, wright here our 6 main personalities show up and also play out a scenario shown by the informational contents. In a solitary episode, there have the right to be several informational segments adhered to by vignettes with the characters exemplifying the contents. Often, genuine historical figures appear and also are component of the story. Mostly the stories played out are fictional though, also if they contain historical figures.

Epistemically, these settings, also as soon as they contain actual historical numbers, cannot be said to be true, as opposed to the informational segments. They can be referred to as “true enough” in a more tranquil manner of speaking, though. The informational bits offer us at leastern the kind of points that happened and also the kind of people affiliated, however occasionally likewise the actual historical actors, and also just how things about happened within the bounds collection by the indevelopment given. Episodes then put them in scene in the setting of largely our six primary characters. Such a setup of historical exemplification can additionally regularly be watched in many kind of historical documentaries, minus the particular comical facet and also the basic upbeat tone, which often additionally put more general indevelopment about what occurred right into concrete scenes to be knowledgeable by the audience.7 

The mise en scène contains a recurring comical aspect obviously catered to the taracquire audience of children. The conflict between the good and mischievous personalities is typically fixed physically through Jumbo beating Klotz and Ekel up with a swift blow to the head, frequently resulting in them having visible bumps prospering out of their heads. This is the just violence that is on a regular basis depicted in the series and it is obviously softened and cushioned up violence, neither Klotz nor Ekel are ever before seriously injured. The function of those scenes is flatly entertainment and comic relief for youngsters through no immediate epistemic gain. (Secondarily, such comical scenes could very well be epistemically useful, as it could be that they save the kids focused and also interested in the series and the understanding it provides.). As a type of humor all of this is incredibly straightforward (bump complies with hit on the head), instant and visual and it is just one of a few places wright here the series fell flat for me rewatching it as an adult.

The setting as such with its acquainted stock personalities through fixed traits and consistently recurring behaviours likewise supplies immediate recognition worth and also orientation to the youngsters audience. It breaks facility developments down into the stated vignettes via their comical facets. All of this makes the historical information gave more palpable and conveniently understandable to children whose cognitive abilities and attention expectancy are limited compared to adults. It likewise creates the generally positive and upbeat “emplotment” (White 1973: 10) of the whole series that have the right to be characterized via White as comedic in character. The basic message throughout is that progress and also honesty, underpinned by courage and also inventiveness, carry out win out, though there are risks and also setbacks all the method through put up by the powers that be.

Emplotment is not all tright here is to the mise en scène, though. Tright here are, as we have actually seen, the epistemically central indevelopment segments that set the boundaries for the scenes and also what deserve to happen in them, which then are mostly played out by the major six characters. The establishing through 6 recurring personalities has actually pedagogical worth and the comical scenes are obviously there for entertainment functions (yet they could have positive secondary epistemic impacts as I shown above). Beyond that, tbelow is the mostly upbeat tone and also comedic emplotment of the entirety series, which have the right to at least partially be defined by the series being aimed at kids as its primary audience. Intermixed with the positive tone there are also political and ethical worries that are ambivalent, coming to the fore in the hazards and also anxieties portrayed in the last episode however existing throughout the series with the damage of planet Planet in the intro. In some feeling, the depiction and conversation of these concerns have the right to be viewed as pedagogically encouraged too, via the goal of educating youngsters and also helping them to stop catastrophes that were viewed as actual possibilities in the late 1970s.

History as children’s seriesChildren’s series such as Once Upon a Time… Man are a details form of “histotainment” for a certain audience and also in this sense it represents a discourse on history of its very own, very different in its main facets from the disciplinary and also scholarly discourse of experienced historiography. As I have tried to display throughout this message, tright here are certain criteria and also objectives past pucount epistemic ones that influence the character of the end product that is Once Upon a Time… Man. These purposes and also criteria are visible in the “what”, the contents of the series, and also the “how”, the means it is lugged onto the display screen. Those other goals are mainly pedagogical and also entertainment-thrust. Because of this, they are at ideal at the sidelines of the discourse of expert historiography. There are, yet, overlaps in between Once Upon a Time… Man and also the way history is presented in some museums, particularly those through an explicit pedagogic mission, and also in historical documentaries and also movies for grown-ups. It will certainly be amazing to have a closer look in the future on just how epistemic, pedagogic and entertainment purposes intermesh in those historical representations, in compariboy to Upon a Time… Man and academic historiography.

The basic goal of Once Upon a Time… Man is acquiring children interested in and also teaching them about history, and also doing this in a fun means, as testified by its creator Albert Barillé.8 Plenty of nostalgic and also extremely appreciative comments under episodes of the series on YouTube by currently adults and also my very own endure are anecdotal proof that this goal has been amply accomplished. It would seem history can indeed be taught in an authentic manner while being tailored to the certain demands of different audiences. And it can be fun all the while also. This is a timely lesboy around history for the present.

 

 

 

1 I give thanks to Mikko Kurttila, David Černín, Ilkka Lähteenmäki, and Fu Lo for comments on a previous version of this message.

2 Tbelow were a number of more children’s cartoon series by Albert Barillé that adhered to Once Upon a Time … Man, employing the same main personalities and also visual style and meeting through comparable success as the initially series. Among them were Once Upon a Time... Life from 1986 and also Once Upon a Time... The Americas from 1991. Especially Once Upon a Time... Life was a big success after Once Upon a Time … Man. Like Once Upon a Time … Man did for background, a few years after it Once Upon a Time... Life first introduced me to biological knowledge around the human body. It did not leave, however, the exact same note on my memory as Once Upon a Time… Man did. All series can be perceived on YouTube in various langueras.

3 When it concerns evolution, Once Upon a Time… Man is even more realistic than the well known Rite of Spring segment of Disney’s cartoon film Fantasia from 1940, a genuine classical of film background. Rite of Spring goes for over 20 minutes and depicts the beforehand background of earth up till the extinction of the dinosaurs, with Stravinsky’s eponymous The Rite of Spring as musical accompaniment, however leaves the evolution of people out of the picture. Fantasia is the aesthetically and otherwise even more ambitious job, however Rite of Spring additionally contains factual errors of a magnitude unviewed in Once Upon a Time… Man. In its many celebrated scene, a Tyrannosaurus rex fights a Stegosaurus, however Tyrannosaurus stayed in the top Cretaceous approximately 66 million years back and also Stegosaurus in the late Jurassic about 150 million years ago, many type of tens of numerous years acomponent. (The renowned T-Rex Stegosaurus battle scene deserve to be watched right here on YouTube.) While this was known in 1940, an additional grave error was not: Rite of Spring claims that the dinosaurs went extinct due to a substantial drought duration of the world, whereas today it is firmly establimelted that the Chicxulub impactor that hit the Yucatan peninsula roughly 66 million years earlier wiped out the dinosaurs. Another inaccuracy is that T-rex is illustrated with three fingers instead of 2, an creative alternative of Walt Disney himself, that thought the cregulation looked better that means. Regardless of these inaccuracies, Rite of Spring has been for many type of youngsters the entree right into the human being of dinosaurs, simply as Once Upon a Time… Man has been the beginning of an interest in history for many kind of children, myself included. On this effect of Rite of Spring and its epistemic and aesthetic properties, watch very instructively Noyes 2017. According to Charles Pence (Pence 2017), human development was still also prickly a topic in the US at the 1930s to be consisted of into Fantasia. Some 40 years later on, tbelow was no such worry at all for Once Upon a Time… Man in France. It was rather preoccupied with the potential devastation of our earth by humankind, which consequently was of no issue to Fantasia.

4 Tbelow are additionally distinctions in the music favored for the intro, at least between the German and the French variation. The French original has Bach’s renowned Toccata and Fugue in D minor (BWV 565) as musical accompaniment, the German variation the song “Tausfinish Jahre” (“A thousand also years”) by the Austrian singer Ucarry out Jürgens. The German version adds to the eeriness and somberness of the finishing through the message of Jürgens’ song whose chorus goes: “Was ist Zeit? Ein Augenblick. Ein Stundenschlag. Tausfinish Jahre sind ein Tag” (“What is time? A minute. The striking of an hour. A thousand years are one day”). The original has actually the primal quality of Bach’s body organ work for it, which evokes a mélange of contradictory feelings and also ends on a sad note. The various versions deserve to be watched on YouTube below and also right here.

5 The historian Nathalie Zemon Davis has actually reflected on the tension between historic understanding and also filmic depiction throughout her work. She is through her The Return of Martin Guerre among a few historians who has functioned on both a movie and also a academic account about the very same topic, the situation of an impostor in rural 16th century France (Zemon Davis 1983). Actually, she operated on the film first before creating the historic account of Martin Guerre, which is inexplicable even for those historians that work-related on historical movies. Reflecting on the distinctions between movies and scholarly texts, she writes: “I felt prefer I had actually my very own historical laboratory, generating not proofs, however historical possibilities. At the exact same time, the film was departing from the historical record, and also I discovered this troubling. (…) Where was there room in this beautiful and cinematographic reproduction of a town for the unpredictabilities, the “perhapses”, the “may-have-beens”, to which the historian has recourse when the evidence is insufficient or perplexing?” (Zemon Davis 1983: viii). See also Zemon Davis 1988 for a more thorough account of the differences between miscellaneous media of representing history and possible tensions in between them.

6 The names of the major characters could differ to a specific extent in the various language versions. In the French original, for instance, the two primary male great characters are called Pierre and also le Gros, which equates as the huge or chubby one, rather of Adam and Jumbo. Maestro is Maestro in both versions, and Eva is referred to as Pierrette in the original. The biblical allusion of Adam and also Eve is therefore specific to the Gerguy translation. The 2 bad personalities are dubbed le Teigneux and also le Nabot in the original definition something favor stubborn one or blockhead and also shorty in English. The English variation provides the main personalities as Maestro, Peter, Jumbo, Pierrette, The Pest, and The Dwarf.

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7 I can’t argue for the philosophical validity of the notion of ”true enough” below. On it, watch Elgin 2004. It is also incredibly cshed to what Stuart Glennan called “generalised narrative” (Glennan 2016: 263). Danto (1985: 238) additionally offers a comparable assumed in the context of earlier philosophy of history

8 In Barillé very own words: ”Les enfants passent out tellement de temps devant la télévision : alors autant meubler le vide en leur offrant une distractivity qui véhicule un savoir. S’ils ne comprennent pas tout, je m’en fous. L’important est que ces séries ouvrent la porte au désir de connaître. Mais pour obtenir ce résultat, « qu’est-ce qu’il a fallu avaler comme connaissances ! On a le droit de faire des blagues, mais on doit être irréprochable sur la véracité des faits. «” (quoted in Doussot 2012).