The ornamental fish trade has been thought about as one of the most necessary routes the invasive alien fish introduction into native freshwater ecosystems. Therefore, the types composition and invasion dangers of fish species from 60 freshwater fish pet stores in Klang Valley, Malaysia to be studied. A checklist the taxa belonging come 18 orders, 53 families, and 251 species of alien fishes to be documented. Fish Invasiveness Screening check (FIST) verified that 7 (30.43%), eight (34.78%) and eight (34.78%) varieties were considered to be high, medium and low invasion risks, respectively. ~ the calibration that the Fish Invasiveness Screening Kit (FISK) v2 making use of the Receiver operating Characteristics, a threshold value of 17 for distinguishing in between invasive and non-invasive fishes to be identified. As a result, nine species (39.13%) were of high intrusion risk. In this study, we found that non-native fishes conquered (85.66%) the freshwater ornamental profession in Klang Valley, when FISK is a more robust device in assessing the risk of invasion, and also for the most part, its outcome was commensurate through FIST. This study, because that the very first time, revealed the number of high-risk ornamental fish types that offer an awareness of possible future intrusion if unmonitored in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

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As a an international hobby, fishkeeping is cherished by both young and also old people. Besides, it contributes to the advancement of human well-being by structure responsibility in children, managing stress in adults, and also helping the elderly to cope through their an important physical and psychological states1. However, some hobbyists lack details or room careless concerning the preservation of organic biodiversity2. As soon as aquarium fishes attain huge unmanageable sizes or become very aggressive, castle are likely to be dumped into local waters3. Hobbyists may additionally get exhausted of certain fishes or obtain uncomfortable v their excessive reproduction habits4. This route of introduction is more than likely the least regulated in countless countries5. As a result, numerous fish varieties have deliberately or inadvertently been introduced right into the aboriginal ecosystems especially in locations where the aquarium fish sector is really active. Therefore, the price of introduction and spread of alien fish types has to be eased by human tasks and the results are on eco-friendly and/or socioeconomic1.

In Malaysia, aquarium profession stands as the 2nd most crucial route v which alien fish types are introduced right into inland water bodies, after ~ aquaculture6. Native 2007 to 2014, the profession bloomed native the value of USD 18.9 million to us 85.0 million in the country, indicating the prominence of the industry7,8. However, a larger proportion the the ornamental fishes in the aquarium company are alien, thereby enhancing the probability of dumping, and risk of invasion6. In terms of propagule pressure, the aquarium route might out-perform aquaculture together a pathway of types invasion if the dumping of undesirable aquarium fishes proceeds to boost with minimal or no regulation and control9. Moreover, in nations like Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, and also Australia, dumping of ornamental fishes has actually been the key route of varieties introduction2.

Risk review is crucial as a an initial step in assessing the hazard of alien species to the aboriginal ecosystem and types biodiversity10. Consequently, different risk assessment methods have been developed and used to understand and also predict the invasiveness of extraterrestrial fish species around the people including the Fish Invasiveness Screening check (FIST)2,11, Fish Invasiveness Screening Kit (FISK)12,13,14,15, and Aquatic types Invasiveness Screening Kit (AS-ISK)16,17. Paradoxically, there is no solitary study top top the invasion risk of alien ornamental freshwater fishes in Malaysia using any kind of of this tools. Because prevention has actually been figured out as the backbone of extraterrestrial invasive varieties management, the is vital to identify and understand the existing or potential dangers of miscellaneous routes of aquatic species invasion18.

Being the most developed and also populated region in the country, this research intends not only to determine the ornamental fishes in pet stores, but likewise to ascertain the invasion risks of height aliens current in stores in ~ Klang Valley, Malaysia. This area is famed to harbour countless ornamental fish pet shop coupled v its sport fishing activities. Besides, highly populated areas are an ext prone to fish introduction19. The area is also home to several neighborhood freshwater bodies consisting of rivers, lakes, and also streams that room susceptible come the dumping of aquarium fishes. Moreover, this study will not only carry out baseline information for future research, but additionally serve as a device for a more focused and also intensified effort towards the monitoring of extraterrestrial fish species, and also in the long run, aid prevent adverse results of fish species invasion in the regional ecosystems.

Ethics statement

The fishes were sampled, handled, and also sacrificed according to the methods approved by Institutional animal Care and also Use Committee, Universiti Putra Malaysia. All techniques were lugged out in accordance with appropriate guidelines and regulations.

Study area

Klang sink is situated at the center of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and covers five major areas such together the Federal are of Kuala Lumpur, Gombak, Hulu Langat, Klang and Petaling, where they sheathe an almost right area the 2,832 km2. The region cuts across cities such as Ampang Jaya, Kuala Lumpur, Klang, Petaling Jaya, shah Alam, and Subang Jaya20. This area was selected as a an outcome of being urbanized and also with a heavy population of end 4 million human being which represents about 16% that the whole country’s population21. To check out the spread and also frequency that the various species in pet stores roughly the area, only retail shop were contained in the study. Likewise, the sleeve stores are more widely distributed and probably serve as the significant route v which alien fish species may be introduced into nearby local water bodies. The study took ar throughout the year 2019 and also essentially surveyed all identified and accessible ornamental fish pets stores in ~ Klang Valley, Malaysia.

Sampling procedures

Since there was no main sampling framework to recognize the total variety of stores in ~ the sampling area, this study relied ~ above the data from department of Fisheries, Malaysia, and Google maps come collate and locate all obtainable pet stores in the area. The stores were screened for feasible inclusion or exclusion from the survey, after each visit. Pet stores that had actually too few freshwater fishes, usually just for screen purposes and those the deal just with maritime fishes were additionally excluded indigenous the survey. In every pet store, all accessible fish varieties were observed and documented through listing the common and also scientific names. Varieties that can not be identified instantly were purchased and also taken come the laboratory for more identification.

Species identification and checklists

The fishes were identified using a mix of keys and publications native previous studies22,23,24,25,26,27,28. Information on the order, family, species, conservation status, indigenous distribution, climatic zone, and the threat to humans were ascertained using FishBase29 and Eschmeyer"s magazine of Fishes30. Each types was designated as alien or native based upon information gathered. However, identification obstacles were skilled with a few fish samples and so were not contained for further analysis to prevent misidentifications and also erroneous conclusions. Eventually, checklists that all recorded alien and native fishes were presented.

Descriptive analyses

Descriptive analyses were carried out using Microsoft Excel (Office 365, version 2016, Microsoft Corp., Berkshire, UK) to present the charts and graphs showing incident frequencies and also other descriptive information around the videotaped native and also alien fish species. These include information regarding families, orders, geography origin, conservation status, native distribution, climatic zone, and also the threat to humans. Come facilitate the analysis, all taped fish species, ~ identification, were provided and each to be coded for each aquarium shop together 0 if the fish types was unavailable, and also 1 for accessible fish species. Varieties of any type of particular types were taken together a solitary species to prevent taxonomic confusion.

Percentage the occurrence, conservation status, climatic zone and also the risk to human

Recorded alien fish varieties were distinguished and also classified based on the percentage of event (popularity) together low (≤ 25%), center (26—50%), and also high (≥ 51—100%). Also, following previous study31 and using details from FishBase29, the recorded info was thorough as follows: native range (continents and sub-continents), basic climatic area (temperate, tropical, sub-tropical), conservation status (such as no assessed (NA), critically threatened (CR), near threatened (NT), least issue (LC), fragile (VU), data deficient (DD))32 and also potential dangers to humans such as harmless (H), toxicity (T), awful (V), traumatogenic (TR) and also poisonous (P)29.

Comparison of fish occurrence by origin

The Mann Whitney U test was provided to to compare the incident of native versus alien fishes in the stores, when Spearman rank correlation was also carried the end to identify the strength, direction, and also significance of the relationship in between the number of alien fish species recorded and also the total number of species tape-recorded in the pet stores making use of IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, variation 23.0. Armonk, NY, USA. This were excellent after trying out the data and also confirming that they go not fulfill the problems for parametric statistical analyses.

Risk assessment

Risk evaluate to quantify the invasiveness of the extraterrestrial fish types was lugged out. In the very first stage, the criteria for an option of tape-recorded fish types which were consisted of in the assessment are; portion of occurrence greater than 25% in the sampled pets stores/existing background of establishment, portion of occurrence less than 25% in the stores/ vault reports the the species presence in Malaysian water bodies, and percentage that occurrence less than 25% in the stores/evidence the the species has been created in plenty of other countries.

Secondly, the invasion risk to be explored in 2 phases. First, using the Fish Invasiveness Screening test (FIST)2,11 with minor modification. Thereafter, the Fish Invasiveness Screening Kit (FISK) v2 was applied33. FIST serves as a rapid tool that presents an index for screening latent biological characteristics associated with invasion. Because that this study, characteristics considered encompass maximum adult length, propagule pressure (expressed together % of occurrence frequency of a types in surveyed pet stores), background of establishment, breeding in the wild, competition with aboriginal species, diet plasticity, temperature tolerance, and also tolerance come low dissolved oxygen.

After ascertaining the characteristics of a species from consulted sources, the traits were classified as missing or short ( +), middle (+ +), and also high (+ + +) because that each species based ~ above the eight taken into consideration features2,11,25,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43. Because that computation, just a criterion where a types qualifies for ‘ + + + ’ is quantified using the ‘number 1′, when a score below that such as ‘ + + ’ or ‘ + ’ is assigned a score that ‘0′ since they room not taken into consideration in the final risk analysis2,11. The scoring criteria for FIST are shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Scoring criteria for Fish Invasiveness Screening Test.
Full size table

The portion value that the Frequency circulation (FD%) because that screened criteria to be enumerated for each types after i beg your pardon invasiveness to be measured indigenous the calculate FD% value based on risk level. Once a types is through an FD% worth for ‘ + + + ’ of over 50% for all screened criteria, they were classified together high-risk, while varieties with values in between 30 and also 50% were classified together moderate-risk and those listed below 30% as low-risk.

Using FISK, varieties were analysed come double-check and also ascertain the level of risk from FIST. The FISK is a tool that evaluates intrusion risk the fish types based ~ above a set of 49 questions that fall into two groups such as ‘biogeography/history’ and also ‘biology/ecology’, each having three and also five subcategories, respectively4,33. Due to the fact that every solution in FISK because that each types has a certainty score (1 = very uncertain; 2 = mostly uncertain; 3 = mostly certain; 4 = very certain) because that each species, a ‘certainty factor’ (CF) to be computed as ∑(CQi)/(4 × 49) (i = 1, …, 49), whereby CQi is the certainty for the question i, 4 is the best achievable value for certainty (i.e. ‘very certain’) and 49 is the total variety of questions in the FISK tool. The CF, therefore, ranges from a minimum of 0.25 for every 49 questions with certainty score same to 1 to a maximum of 1 for every 49 inquiries with certainty score equal to 4. In enhancement to the published literature consulted, databases such as the Database of introduced Aquatic types (DIAS) (, global Invasive species Database (GISD) (, centre for farming and Bioscience international (CABI) (, FishBase ( and the United says Fish and also Wildlife organization (USFWS) ( listed information were provided to complete the analysis.

The power of FISK v2 to appropriately discriminate between non-invasive (low and also medium-risk) and also invasive (high-risk) varieties gives a measure up of the predictive potential44. Therefore, FISK was calibrated because that Peninsular Malaysia making use of the ROC (Receiver operating Characteristics) ~ generating reports of 23 species15,44. To accomplish this, a priori types categorization based upon perceived invasiveness (i.e. Invasive or non-invasive) was lugged out making use of information easily accessible from the Invasive types Specialist group database (ISSG) ( and FishBase12,29,44,45,46. ISSG gives information on the establishment status of fishes in non-native regions and also gives general information on your ecology, distribution, impact, and also management. Because that the hybrid fish, a priori danger ranking was based on the taxon through the highest invasiveness risk44.

The ROC evaluation presents a curve i m sorry is a graph the sensitivity versus 1- specificity (sensitivity versus specificity). Here, sensitivity refers to the ratio of invasive and also non-invasive fish species, respectively, that space accurately well-known by the FISK tool. The area under the curve (AUC) help to recognize the precision that the calibration analysis. One AUC the 1.0 way that the test is fully accurate and also both sensitivity and also specificity are equal to 1.0 with no false positives (i.e. Non-invasive varieties categorised as invasive) or false negatives (i.e. Invasive types categorised as non-invasive). Contrarily, an AUC the 0.5 means that the check is 100% inaccurate and is unable to separate true positives (i.e. Actual invasive species) from true negative (i.e. Actual non-invasive species)14,44.

Assessments were brought out by two assessors (fish ecologists) leading to individual and universal ROC curves. The universal ROC curve was computed using the average scores indigenous both assessors. Native the an international ROC curve, the finest threshold (cut-off) value that maximises the true optimistic rate (true invasive categorized as invasive) and also minimises the false-positive price (true non-invasive categorized as invasive) was ascertained making use of Youden’s J statistic47 and also the closest point to the top-left part of the plot through perfect sensitivity or specificity45,48,49. A ‘delta’ value was computed to recognize the difference between scores derived by both assessors44. Also, the CFs because that the 23 varieties were compared for the two assessors making use of the Mann Whitney U test15. Every statistical evaluation was performed making use of IBM SPSS Statistics because that Windows, variation 23.0. Armonk, NY, USA.

A total of 60 ornamental fish stores located within the five districts that cut across Klang valley area were efficiently surveyed (Fig. 1).


Species checklist, orders, and families

Checklists the all taped alien (85.66%, n = 251) and native (14.33%, n = 42) fish varieties are gift in appendix 1 and also Appendix 2, respectively. Species with no official common names were thought about as not available (NA) and the list was arranged based on families. The extraterrestrial fishes belong come 18 orders including Gymnotiformes, Acanthuriformes, Acipenseriformes, Anabantiformes, Centrarchiformes, Cichliformes, Lepisosteiformes, Myliobatiformes, Osteoglossiformes, Atheriniformes, Gobiiformes, Tetraodontiformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Polypteriformes, Cypriniformes, Characiformes, Siluriformes, and also Perciformes. Most of them belong to the stimulate Cichliformes (28.2%, n = 71) complied with by Siluriformes (18.7%, n = 47) and also Characiformes (15.9%, n = 40), when Perciformes, Gymnotiformes, Gobiiformes and Centrarchiformes videotaped the least variety of species (0.40%, n = 1), respectively.

Out the the full of 53 families recorded, Cichlidae (n = 71) i beg your pardon belongs to the bespeak Cichliformes and occupied 100% of all Cichliformes recorded, followed by household Cyprinidae (n = 25) which occupied about 67.6% of all Cypriniformes (Fig. 2). A total of 29 family members had only one varieties each and also these incorporate Acipenseridae, Anabantidae, Apteronotidae, Arapaimidae, Ariidae, Bryconidae, Centrarchidae, Chalceidae, Channidae, Clariidae, Claroteidae, Cobitidae, Ctenoluciidae, Cynodontidae, Distichodontidae, Gasteropelecidae, Gastromyzontidae, Gobiidae, Gyrinocheilidae, Hepsetidae, Monodactylidae, Mormyridae, Pangasiidae, Polyodontidae, Prochilodontidae, Procatopodidae, Siluridae, and also Tanichthyidae.


Percentage that occurrence and natural distribution

Based on percent of event (popularity) at the 60 pets stores, only 4% (n = 11) the the alien fishes had high occurrence, 8% (n = 19) emerged moderately, if the continuing to be 89% (n = 221) had low occurrence. The top occurring species with portion occurrence > 25% contained two-hybrid cichlids that had popularity (occurrence percentage) higher than 50% with goldfish (Carassius auratus) having the highest popularity that 83.3% occurrence, while silver- dollar (Metynnis hypsauchen) had actually the lowest through the popularity of 26.7% event (Appendix 1). The biggest percentage of alien fish varieties recorded in fish pet shop originated from southern America (44%), complied with by Asia (25%) and also Africa (20%).

Climatic zone, conservation status and the risk to human

A complete of 91% (n = 228) that the taped fish species belong come the tropical climatic zone, while 8% (n = 21) and 1% (n = 2) belong to the subtropical and also temperate regions, respectively. Based upon the IUCN Red list conservation status, 3% (n = 7) each of the recorded varieties are intimidated (EN) and near intimidated (NT), while 4% (n = 11) and also 1% (n = 4) are breakable (VU) and also critically intimidated (CR), respectively. Menarambo cichlid (Paretroplus menarambo), maingano (Pseudotropheus cyaneorhabdos), huge barb (Catlocarpio siamensis) and Siamese tiger perch (Datnioides pulcher) to be designated together critically endangered, if shovel sleep tiger catfish (Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum), zebra loach (Botia striata), putitor masheer (Tor putitora), lipstick goby (Sicyopus jonklaasi), Boseman’s rainbowfish (Melanotaenia boesemani), Denison"s barb (Sahyadria denisonii) and striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) space endangered, when elongate mbuna (Chindongo elongatus), emperor cichlid (Aulonocara nyassae), silver- carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), panda cory (Corydoras panda), Blyth"s loach (Syncrossus berdmorei) and also royal knifefish (Chitala blanci) are close to threatened. Interestingly, 5% (n = 13) of all extraterrestrial fishes were videotaped as potential pests including varieties such as north afri catfish (Clarias gariepinus), vermiculated sailfin catfish (Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus), goldfish (Carassius auratus), typical carp (Cyprinus carpio) amongst others29. Only 2% that the types (n = 4) room traumatogenic29 (Fig. 3).


Species to compare in shop by origin

Non-native fish types were significantly (U = 159.0, p Mdn = 25) contrasted to the indigenous fish species (Mdn = 6). Besides, Spearman rank correlation suggested a far-ranging positive association between the number of non-native fish and the total variety of fish types (r = 0.969, p  25%) types and 7 other types that satisfy the choice criteria were subjected to invasiveness screening. FIST proved that 7 (30.43%), eight (34.78%) and also eight (34.78%) types were taken into consideration to be of high, medium and also low invasion risks, respectively. The high-risk species include phibìc African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), goldfish (Carassius auratus), typical carp (Cyprinus carpio), guppy (Poecilia reticulata), flowerhorn (cichlid hybrid), redtail catfish (Phractocephalus hemioliopterus) and suckermouth catfish (Hypostomus plecostomus) (Table 2).

Table 2 result of Fish Invasiveness Screening Test for selected optimal alien fishes indigenous ornamental pet stores within Klang Valley, Malaysia.

To calibrate FISK, AUCs (0.938, 1.000–0.840 CI for Assessor 1 and 0.929, 1.000–0.819 CI for Assessor 2) from the ROCs were close for both assessors. As a result, an in its entirety ROC was computed making use of the median FISK v2 scores and also this offered an AUC value of 0.938, 1.00–0.839 (Fig. 4). This suggests the capacity of FISK come discriminate between invasive and non-invasive types based a priori classification. The ideal threshold as provided by Youden’s J was liked to be 17, which was the score provided to calibrate FISK to distinguish in between medium and also high-risk species. Due to the fact that this threshold resulted in no invasive types being ranked as low risk, we kept the FISK v2 score interval indigenous -15 come 0 because that low-risk species.


The derived mean FISK scores caused 14 (60.9%) species classified as medium risk and also 9 (39.1%) varieties as high risk. The a priori group gave 8 (34.8%) species as invasive and also 15 (65.2%) types as non-invasive. The end of the 15 species classified a priori as non-invasive, FISK to be able to properly classify 93.3% together medium-risk and also out of the 8 species, a priori classified together invasive FISK assessment had the ability to classify 87.5% as high-risk. Furthermore, FISK scores for the 15 varieties a priori classified as non-invasive ranged indigenous 6.5 to 24, while the 8 types a priori classified together invasive ranged native 14 come 32.5. Individual assessor scores ranged indigenous 5 because that arapaima (Arapaima gigas) come 36 for north african catfish (Clarias gariepinus), when the average assessor scores ranged from 6.5 because that redtail catfish (Phractocephalus hemioliopterus) come 32.5 because that north african catfish (Clarias gariepinus) (Table 3). Five varieties including redtail catfish (Phractocephalus hemioliopterus), arapaima (Arapaima gigas), red piranha (Pygocentrus nattereri), black tetra (Gymnocorymbus ternetzi) and also flowerhorn (cichlid hybrid) had the lowest FISK scores, if peacock bass (Cichla ocellaris), goldfish (Carassius auratus), amazon sailfin catfish (Pterygoplichthys pardalis), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and also north afri catfish (Clarias gariepinus) had actually the highest FISK scores in ascending order.

Table 3 Fish varieties assessed through FISK v2 for ornamental fish species within Klang Valley, Malaysia. High-risk species were selected based upon a threshold value of ≥ 17.

Delta scores ranged native 1 to 7 and there was a far-ranging negative connection (p 5). The median CF for all responses (mean ± SE) was 0.87 ± 0.008.


A vast majority of the alien species recorded in this research originate indigenous the tropics, in line through the script reported in Greece, Brazil, Canada, and USA1,4,31,50,51. This tendency signals that many types from that an ar are of desirable ornamental qualities possessing the ability to survive and also thrive at least in a regulated environment. Furthermore, Malaysia falls within the tropic region, and the high relationship of tropical extraterrestrial aquarium fishes videotaped in this examine signals the possibility of establishment since the setting may be very suitable. Moreover, over a half (51%) and a 3rd (35%) that the cichlid varieties originate from southern America and also Africa, which space the first and third in state of origin for varieties reported in this study, respectively. Southern America has the most varied fish fauna on earth which at this time numbers end 9000 the freshwater and also marine varieties combined, about 27% of all fishes about the world52. This huge variety of species is most likely to covers a correspondingly high variety of freshwater ornamental fish species. This possibly explains the factor why most of the species encountered originate from southern America.

Furthermore, household Cichlidae probably consists of species with an ext desirable ornamental attributes compared to household Cyprinidae. This recognize is in agreement with a previous study31. However, the is slightly various from the report of Magalhães and Jacobi51 who reported Cyprinidae together the most popular, adhered to by Poeciliidae. Besides, every one of the extraterrestrial cyprinid fishes taped in pet shop originate from other oriental countries. This provides an idea that the diversity of cyprinids in the region and the threat of further arrival of brand-new species. The proximity that Malaysia come other eastern countries could also facilitate this situation due to the fact that importation from these countries would most likely be easier contrasted to nations in farther continents.

Occurrence frequency may most likely predict the magnitude of relax (propagule pressure) of alien fish into native ecosystems3. Because that example, Duggan et al.9 in their examine of ornamental fish species available in Canada and also the USA established a relationship in between the incident frequency of alien fish households in stores and their subsequent development and establishment. Goldfish (Carassius auratus), freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) and also Sumatra barb (Puntigrus tetrazona) were the most occurring alien fishes in this study. This, in part, is comparable to the result in Pacific Northwest the cuts across USA and Canada1, and also for mountain Francisco Bay-Delta an ar in California, USA4,53. A vault report with an even greater frequency of incident is probably due to the broader coverage of the study3.

This study additionally indicates that alien fish varieties contributed the many to the total variety of species easily accessible for sale. Return chain shop were no encountered throughout the survey, previous research studies have noted that independent retail stores typically sold a higher number of various fish types compared to chain stores54.

Alien fish varieties have been taped from diverse ecosystems in Malaysia, and these include, however not restricted to drainage areas, mining pools, lakes, reservoirs, swamps, streams, and rivers6,55,56,57. The existence of few of these species including peacock base (Cichla ocellaris), stripe catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthlamus), piranha (Serrasalmus sp.), arapaima (Arapaima gigas), north African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and also tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) has actually been attributed to purposeful arrival into regional waters6,58. Besides, few of them are well adjusted to the environment, flourish rapidly, feeding on neighborhood fishes, and some are taken into consideration invasive59,60. For example, the Amazon sailfin catfish (Pterygoplichthys pardalis) has established a self-breeding populace in Langat River, Selangor, and much more than 10 tonnes of the fish were reportedly been recorded from the Skudai River, Johor. They may have outcompeted the aboriginal fish varieties owing to your hardy characteristics61,62. This species also disrupt the environment since they destruction the flow bottom to make burrows come lay eggs. As a result, they have tendency to contribute to erosion and also sedimentation of the river bottom63.

As one of the top-ten nations that produce ornamental fishes that freshwater origin, the ornamental fish market in Malaysia is a sizeable one and also includes the collection, breeding, and also marketing i m sorry creates work for the locals and generates foreign exchange for the country64,65,66. However, there space pieces of proof that the ornamental fish trade is a critical route through which extraterrestrial fish it s okay introduced and also translocated4,50,67,68. In fact, as result of their behaviour and also potential come attain big sizes, alien varieties belonging to the genera Hypostomus and Pterygoplichthys likely get released specifically when they come to be too huge for most domestic aquaria3.

Just like in this study, FIST was previously used because that selected ornamental fish species in Brazil2 and also India11. However, a slight modification of their approaches warranted the consists of event frequency of alien fish species as component of the criteria for risk analysis. This may be the reason why some recognized high-risk species turned out to it is in of moderate-risk due to their short to moderate event in the stores, which decreased their scores during analysis. Few of the high to moderate-risk species are recognized to have actually established reproduction populations in Malaysian inland waters. Because that example, the peacock base (Cichla ocellaris), vermiculated sailfin catfish (Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus), Amazon sailfin catfish (Pterygoplichthys pardalis), arapaima (Arapaima gigas), alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) and pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus) have actually been encountered in some water bodies about the country21,61,62,69. The impacts of these and other tool to low-risk varieties on Malaysian freshwater ecosystems have actually probably no been generally studied. Although many of the low-risk varieties from FIST (medium risk varieties from FISK) are well-known to it is in small-sized, guppy (Poecilia reticulata) which is additionally small-sized turned the end to be of high-risk native both FIST and FISK. Furthermore, high-risk varieties like north African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) have actually been report from indigenous waters and also recorded in aquaculture, a purpose for which it to be introduced6.

Concerning high-risk species, both FIST and also FISK gave similar outcomes through designating types such as north african catfish (Clarias gariepinus), carp (Cyprinus carpio), goldfish (Carassius auratus) and also suckermouth catfish (Hypostomus plecostomus) together high-risk species. This mirrors that both tools space valuable, although, FISK v2 is likely more robust as result of its greater number that questions, the consist of of multiple elements that are taken into consideration to be an useful in predicting potential intrusion success through previous intrusion history, establishment success in other regions, climate matching and also documented impacts70,71, and the capacity to calibrate it for a particular risk assessment area44,72,73. The success of FISK v2 come discriminate between invasive and also non-invasive fish species in this study is in line with previously studies14,44,72,73. Besides, it has actually been argued that prior to the applications of FISK, a fast screening tool might be utilized to flag the possibly high-risk species73. Therefore, FIST may be taken into consideration as a first-stage rapid risk screening tool11.

Despite gift designated to it is in of high-risk, little or no reports regarding establishment in the wild exist for varieties such as carp (Cyprinus carpio), goldfish (Carassius auratus) and oscar (Astronotus ocellatus) which also turned the end to it is in of high risk. This is probably because of failed advent owing to biotic and abiotic influences44,74, insufficient propagule pressure to guarantee the establishment of these species, or are yet to it is in detected in the wild. This species, therefore, appear to pose no significant risk that invasiveness in the risk evaluation area. This is similar to a report for some 6 high-risk types including goldfish and also guppy in peninsular Florida, USA44.

All that the low-risk species from FIST turned the end to be of medium risk follow to FISK. Besides, some varieties known to have actually been developed in local waters and of most likely serious influence on biodiversity and also environments prefer Amazon sailfin catfish (Pterygoplichthys pardalis), vermiculated sailfin catfish (Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus) and also peacock bass (Cichla ocellaris) room of tool risk according to FIST and also of high-risk according to FISK. Again, this may be because of the robustness the FISK making it more accurate in designating the intrusion status.

In this study, the calibrated high-risk threshold value of 17 is close to scores report by ahead studies ranging from 17 come 23, together reported by those that applied FISK v145,75,76 and v212,13,46,77. Contrarily, that is quite greater than the threshold values of 9.5, 11.75, and 10.5 indigenous FISK v2 reported because that the southern Balkan countries, north Balkan nations (Croatia and Slovenia) and Florida, USA, respectively10,44,72. Moreover, the low variety (3 come 7) that delta values and the an unfavorable relationship between the delta values and mean FISK scores show that the assessors typically have closer certainty levels for the types with higher scores 보다 for the short scoring species. This differs from the wide selection and confident relationship reported because that the FISK v2 assessment of fish types from peninsular Florida, USA44. A feasible reason for this is the greater number the assessors in their study which may have offered rise to much more divergent opinions.

This examine represents the first attempt to risk-screen alien ornamental fish types in Peninsular Malaysia. We recognize the require for more studies to carry out screening of much more species consisting of those mainly for aquaculture which to be not caught in this study. Moreover, over there is a require for boosted monitoring and also management that the high-risk species where some of them are amongst the most famous ornamental fishes traded everywhere the world3. Priority have to be offered to those v established reproduction populations, while those yet to create should be prevented from obtaining introduced. In enhancement to the present plan and efforts by the Malaysian government through the department of Fisheries, to adjust of farming and Food Industries, in addition to the set of Energy and Natural Resources, aquarists and hobbyists have to be associated as they are an useful in the successful monitoring and management fish arrival and invasion3. In situation of the need to import new fish varieties in the future, one initial danger screening must be adopted to aid hint ~ above the feasible impacts and also guide policy decisions.

Although detailed as the 2nd most important route for the introduction of alien fishes in Malaysia, the aquarium trade, evaluate from its ingredient of numerous alien fish species, can overtake aquaculture together a resource of invasive fish arrival if these fishes continuously uncover their method into the neighborhood waters. The variety of high-risk ornamental fish varieties gives an idea the a feasible future intrusion if unmonitored. Moreover, FISK is most likely a more robust tool in assessing the hazard of invasion and for the most part, that outcome to be commensurate through that that FIST with some differences. This likewise shows the worth of FIST because that an initial and also rapid application.


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See more: What Do Floating Objects Have In Common All Of The, Density Flashcards

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