You are watching: Which of the following best defines a social movement?
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women"s suffrage: joined States
Members the the women"s suffrage activity in Philadelphia, 1917.
Harris and also Ewing Collection/Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (neg. No. LC-H261-8200)
The quixotic efforts of bold, imaginative individuals do not constitute society movements. A social motion is a collectivity or a collective enterprise. Individual members experience a sense of membership in one alliance of people who share their dissatisfaction through the current state the affairs and also their vision of a better order. Choose a group, a social movement is a collectivity with a typical goal and also shared values.
The feeling of membership says that individuals are topic to part discipline. In addition to common values, a social movement possesses norms. These standards prescribe behaviour the will represent the members’ commitment to the social movement, strengthen their commitment come it, and collection them apart from nonmembers. The standards prohibit behaviour that may cause embarrassment to the motion or carry out excuses for attacks by opponents. Meeting is strengthened by authorized in group tasks with other members and by engaging in actions, individual or collective, the publicly specify the individuals as cursed members.
A society movement likewise provides guidelines regarding how members need to think. Standards of this type constitute something the same, similar thing a “party line”—a meaning of the “correct” place for members to take v regard to certain issues. Over there is subtle push on people to espouse this position also in the lack of an individual knowledge that the arguments for it. No every member have the right to be meant to study and think v the philosophy that justification the movement and its values. Ideology provides them with a ready-made, maybe authoritative collection of arguments.
One the the defining characteristics of a social motion is the it is reasonably long lasting; the task of the membership is continual over a duration of weeks, months, or also years fairly than flaring up because that a couple of hours or a couple of days and then disappearing. A social motion is typically large, but, prefer duration, largeness is just relative. Part social movements, lasting many decades, might enlist thousands of thousands the members. Some activities take ar within the borders of a specific an additional group, such as a spiritual association or a local community, and also may incorporate only a few score or a few hundred members.
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The exact size the a social movement is impossible to recognize exactly, because that membership is not formally defined. Indeed, one of the salient characteristics of a social movement is the semiformal personality of that is structure. The lacks the totally developed, formal structure of a stable association, such as a club, a corporation, or a politics party. The leaders execute not own authority in the sense of legitimatized power, and members room not formally inducted. The informal, noncontractual high quality of membership and the absence of official decision-making procedures location a premium on faith and loyalty on the part of members. While no all members display these traits, ideal members give their total, unselfish commitment to the movement. Since no legal duty is assumed on ending up being a member, either to conform to the movement’s norms or to continue to be a member, commitment come the movement and its values becomes among the most important sources of control. Deep committed members, accepting without inquiry the decisions and orders conveyed through the leaders, sacrificing self, family, and friends if forced to execute so, are most likely to be related to by outsiders as fanatics. Part students of society movements, specifically those whose analysis has a psychoanalytic orientation, have said that the fanaticism of devoted members results from separation, personal, instance psychopathological states. An alternative explanation is that the social movement becomes a reference group that provides committed members v a new and deviant watch of society reality. Their an easy assumptions about the nature the the society order come to be so divergent from those the “normal” members of society that their logic and also conclusions are incomprehensible come them.