By the finish of this section, you will:Explain how British early american policies about North America led to the Revolutionary War

Suggested Sequencing

Use this Narrative through the rubber stamp Act Resistance Narrative and The Boston Tea Party Narrative following the acts of parliament Lesson to present the cultivation tensions in between England and the colonies.

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In late 1767, conference passed the Townshend Acts, which taxed the colonists on to buy of brothers lead, glass, paint, paper, and also tea. The British also headquartered customizeds officials in Boston to collection the new round the taxes and also enforce profession regulations an ext stringently. The homesteaders could buy only British goods, and also now those products were hit through tariffs that expected there was no limit to Parliament’s count power, since the homesteaders were forbidden come manufacture countless of their own goods.

Colonial reaction to be swift. John Dickinson created in Letters indigenous a Farmer in Pennsylvania that if Parliament thrived in “taking money out of our pockets there is no our consent . . . Our boasted liberty is yet . . . A sound and nothing else.” Massachusetts sent other nests a one letter drafted by Samuel Adams denouncing the taxes. In Williamsburg, George Mason and George Washington complied with the instance of other nests by creating an agreement not come import any type of British goods. Transparent the colonies, women held spinning bees, gatherings in their residences where they make homespun garments as a price of republican simplicity to replace imported luxuries.

Bostonians protested the count in the streets, assembled at town meetings, and also threatened customizeds officials, leading royal Governor Francis Bernard to dissolve the assembly. The British also dispatched 4 thousand redcoats together a display of pressure to pacify the city. Many homesteaders considered the peacetime visibility of this stand army, which their legislatures did no invite, a grave hazard to their liberties and a pistol violation of the 1689 English invoice of Rights. Its visibility strained an already tense atmosphere. Man Adams, cousin the Samuel Adams, wrote later on that the troops’ “very appearance in Boston was a strong proof come me, the the decision in great Britain to subjugate united state was as well deep and inveterate ever to be altered by us.” Fights erupted in taverns and streets together mobs that townspeople wielded insults, clubs, swords, and shovels versus redcoats equipped with bayonets.

On the morning that February 22, 1770, a crowd of hundreds intimidated a merchant, Theophilus Lillie, who had actually violated the boycott of brothers goods. After ~ Lillie’s neighbor, Ebenezer Richardson, rushed to his aid, the throng chased Richardson, that retreated inside his very own house. The group lobbed taunts and rotten food. Together his home windows shattered, Richardson fired right into the crowd, death an eleven-year-old boy. The crowd seized Richardson, beat him senseless, and practically hanged him. Samuel Adams used the incident to portray the dead boy as a martyr to British tyranny and also organized a funeral procession attended by thousands.

A couple of days later, close to the customizeds house, a team of enemy boys insulted a young sentry that responded by shattering the butt of his musket into a boy’s head. The church bells tolled, bringing thousands of citizens into the roads to pelt the sentry through snowballs, rocks, and ice. Captain thomas Preston marched a couple of men out to relax the sentry, forming a line and ordering the group to disperse. In the skirmishes the followed, one soldier to be knocked under by a club; the rose and also discharged his musket. The rest of the soldiers fired a volley that struck eleven Bostonians, instantly death three and also mortally wounding 2 more. Preston and his men were jailed that night, and also the rest of the troops relocated to a ft in Boston harbor, directly averting a full-scale battle.

Patriot leaders seized top top the “massacre” for a public relations victory. The British government – responsible because that protecting its subjects’ rights to life, liberty, and property – in the years due to the fact that the French and also Indian War had seemed to seize colonists’ property and also curtail your liberty; now its soldiers had actually taken your lives. Ten thousand mourners to visit the funeral procession staged by Samuel Adams. Silversmith Paul Revere added an engraving showing bloodthirsty soldiers shooting at chaste civilians; it was mainly propaganda yet served come galvanize numerous colonists’ feelings around British oppression.

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Why would certainly Paul Revere’s sculpture of the Boston Massacre rouse homesteaders toward the Patriot cause?

John Adams, climate a practicing lawyer, safeguarded the british soldiers in court, an unpopular decision the nevertheless identified his was standing for justice and the dominance of law. Preston to be judged no to have given an order to fire and also was acquitted. Many of the soldiers were additionally acquitted on the grounds that self-defense. Adams had actually proved the in the colonies, the regulation was supreme. That staked his windy reputation and Patriot credentials top top the principle the the timeless rights of Englishmen were deserved by all, also hated british soldiers who had actually slain 5 colonists. His courageous act contributed to a family member calm that lasted a few years. Meanwhile, conference revoked the hated Townshend Acts, except, fatefully, the taxation on tea.

Review Questions

1. I m sorry of the adhering to methods was not used by homesteaders to protest the action passed by conference after the French and Indian War?

Boycotting british imports such together textilesPublishing written debates in newspapers and pamphletsAntagonizing brothers soldiers in the roads with verbal and also physical attacksForming militia and securing funds to explain a battle for independence

2. The Boston Massacre refers to

the duration when mobs typically wounded or killed British soldiers in the roadways of Boston due to the fact that the soldiers were perceived as icons of british tyrannythe episode in which a Boston mob assaulted British soldiers that then fired into the crowd, killing 5 coloniststhe duration when the British applied the Stamp, Sugar, Tea, and also Townshend acts on the coloniesthe funerals hosted for murdered homesteaders that hundreds of Bostonians attended to demonstrate solidarity versus the British

3. Which of the following provides an example of colonists participating in an financial protest versus the Townsend Acts?

Well-known leaders favor John Dickinson creating circular letter in protestWomen creating homespun clothes instead of purchasing imported goodsAn organization referred to as the young of Liberty burn effigies in publicProtestors dressing up choose American Indians and also dumping tea right into the harbor

4. What to be the result of the Boston Massacre engraving and funeral procession in other colonies?

Patriots in other swarms interpreted the Boston occasion as a peril to every colonies.Newspapers barely reported the occasions and couple of colonists take it notice.Loyalists to be impressed by the effective actions take away by the british to regain control.Immediate actions to be taken to produce an intercolonial body that would certainly protest this actions.

5. What was man Adams’ intention once he safeguarded the british redcoats connected in the Boston Massacre?

Adams was a fierce Loyalist who thought the crown had absolute government in the colonies and desired come prove the redcoats had committed no crime.Adams wanted each redcoat to endure the aftermath of his murderous actions.Adams desired to prove that the colonists, nevertheless of your political rage, would constantly uphold the dominion of law.Adams longed for a position as a lawyer in great Britain and also knew this situation could fulfill his dream.

6. Which of the following was Britain’s direct solution to the Boston Massacre?

Passage of the Declaratory Act, reasserting brother jurisdiction end the coloniesClosing of Boston harbor in retaliation for colonial economic protestRepeal of every Townsend action taxes other than the one on teaAwarding of spiritual freedom to French-Canadian colonists under brothers rule

7. Which of the following ideal contextualizes the Boston Massacre?

British declared that each purchased document item would call for a stamp tax.The Proclamation of 1763 prohibited negotiation west the the Appalachian Mountains.Rowdy colonists dressed as American Indians and poured east India Tea right into the harbor.British customizeds officials to be headquartered in Boston to enforce the newly declared Townsend Acts.

Free solution Questions

Briefly summarize the interactions in between the british government and also North American homesteaders that caused the Boston Massacre.Explain how John Adams’s defense of brother troops in Boston prove the stamin of the rule of law in colonial America.

AP exercise Questions

“And thereupon the stated Lords Spiritual and Temporal and also Commons, pursuant to their particular letters and elections, being now assembled in a complete and totally free representative of this nation, taking into their many serious consideration the best way for attaining the ends aforesaid, do in the an initial place (as their ancestors in like instance have usually done) for the vindicating and also asserting their ancient rights and also liberties declare

That the pretended power of suspending the laws or the execution of legislations by regal authority without consent of parliament is illegal;

That the pretended strength of dispensing with laws or the execution of laws by regal authority, together it hath to be assumed and exercised the late, is illegal;

That the commission for erecting the late Court of Commissioners for Ecclesiastical Causes, and also all other commissions and courts of choose nature, are illegal and pernicious;

That levy money for or to the use of the Crown through pretence of prerogative, without give of Parliament, for longer time, or in various other manner 보다 the exact same is or shall be granted, is illegal;

That it is the appropriate of the subjects to petition the king, and all commitments and prosecutions for such petitioning space illegal;

That the increasing or keeping a standing army within the kingdom with time of peace, uneven it be with consent that Parliament, is versus law.”

English bill of Rights, 1689

Refer come the excerpt provided.

1. The principle expressed in the English invoice of legal rights that added most come the tensions in Boston was

the best of petition need to not it is in denieda standing military should no be kept among them during a time that peacethe king need to not suspend or neglect lawsspecial courts should not it is in convened

2. Taken together a whole, the English bill of legal rights most clearly demonstrates the British id in the rule of

due processregal authoritythe rule of lawthe typical good

“The crowd still increased and were more outrageous, striking your clubs or bludgeons one against another, and calling out, come on you rascals, you bloody backs, you lobster scoundrels, fire if you dare, G-d cursed you, fire and also be damned. . . . At this time I was between the soldiers and the mob, parleying with, and endeavouring all in my power to sway them to retire peaceably, yet to no purpose. . . .

On this a general assault was do on the men by a an excellent number of heavy clubs and snowballs gift thrown at them, by which all our resides were in unavoidable danger, some persons in ~ the same time from behind calling out, damn your bloods-why don’t you fire. Instantly three or four of the soldiers fired, one after another, and directly after three much more in the same confusion and also hurry. The mob then ran away, other than three unhappy guys who instantly expired, in i m sorry number to be Mr. Gray at whose rope-walk the front quarrels took place; one an ext is because dead, three others space dangerously, and four slightly wounded. The entirety of this melancholy affair to be transacted in practically 20 minutes. Top top my asking the soldiers why they fired there is no orders, they claimed they heard the word fire and supposed it came from me. This could be the situation as numerous of the mob dubbed out fire, fire, but I assured the males that I gave no together order; that my native were, don’t fire, protect against your firing.”

Captain Prescott, Account the the Boston Massacre, 1770

Refer come the excerpt provided.

3. The excerpt offers historians insight into the

likelihood that authors that opposed British policy exploited the occasion for political gain by omitting certain detailsstrict discipline was observed by every redcoats assigned come Boston even in tense situationshealth care noted to those injured during dispute regardless of race or society statusnonviolent protest strategies homesteaders used to decry perceived British injustice

4. An important consequence of the account described in the excerpt was that the

British soldiers to be acquitted ~ above the grounds the self-defenseBritish soldiers to be reprimanded in colonial courts and also then executedColonial vigilantes required to the highways to silence any kind of further discussion of the massacreColonial minutemen started stockpiling tools for a retaliatory offensive

5. I beg your pardon of the following ideal describes a reaction to the event defined in the excerpt?

Colonists follow me the Atlantic seaboard establish the it is too dirty circumstances led to unnecessary death and also vowed to gain back order in their cities.British parliament was so relocated by the Captain’s words that it notified his troops come escort the funeral for those unfairly slain.Patriots used the occasion to galvanize citizens by creating images and also rhetoric.Imperial rivals, such as France and also Spain, sent letters of caution to an excellent Britain encouraging it to minimize the force used in the colonies.

Primary Sources

“Biography of john Adams. The Boston Massacre.” American History. University of Groningen. Http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/biographies/john-adams/the-boston-massacre.php

Chappel, Alonzo. Boston Massacre. Published 1878 The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach department of Art, Prints and Photographs: print Collection, The new York public Library. Http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47da-e8e9-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99

Gilder Lehrman institute of American History. Paul Revere’s sculpture of the Boston Massacre, 1770. Https://gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/road-revolution/resources/paul-revere%E2%80%99s-engraving-boston-massacre-1770

Suggested Resources

Archer, Richard. As If one Enemy’s Country: The brother Occupation of Boston and also the beginnings of Revolution. Oxford: Oxford university Press, 2010.

McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001.

See more: Which Of The Following Is The Correct Sequence Of Events In The Origin Of Life?

Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789. New York: Oxford college Press, 1982.