The anatomy the the hand is complex, intricate, and fascinating. Its verity is absolutely crucial for our everyday functional living. Our hands may be impacted by countless disorders, most generally traumatic injury. For any kind of physician or therapist dealing with hand problems, the mastery of together anatomy is fundamental in order to carry out the best quality of care. (See the image below.) <1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7>


surface anatomy that the left hand. A is the dorsum that the left hand, and B is the palm of the left hand. Number 1 is the place of the extensor retinaculum, 2 is the place of the flexor retinaculum, 3 is the place of the head of the metacarpals, 4 is the ulnar artery, 5 is the radial artery, 6 is the level the the deep palmar arch, and also 7 is the level that the superficial palmar arch.

A full of 27 bones constitute the basic skeleton that the wrist and also hand. The hand is innervated by 3 nerves — the median, ulnar, and also radial nerves — every of which has sensory and motor components. The muscle of the hand are divided into intrinsic and extrinsic groups.

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As formerly mentioned, a total of 27 bones constitute the an easy skeleton the the wrist and also hand. These room grouped right into carpals, metacarpals, and also phalanges(see the picture below).


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skeletal of the left hand. A is the dorsal view, and also B is the palmar view. Number 1 is the radius, 2 is the ulna, 3 is the scaphoid, 4 is the lunate, 5 is the triquetral, 6 is the pisiform, 7 is the trapezium, 8 is the trapezoid, 9 is the capitate, 10 is the hamate, 11 is the metacarpal bones, 12 is the proximal phalanx, 13 is the center phalanx, and also 14 is the distal phalanx.

The wrist is the most facility joint in the body. That is created by 8 carpal bones group in 2 rows with very limited motion in between them. Indigenous radial come ulnar, the proximal row consists of the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and also pisiform bones. In the very same direction, the distal row is composed of the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and also hamate bones.


All carpal bones get involved in wrist role except for the pisiform, i m sorry is a sesamoid bone through which the flexor carpi ulnaris tendon passes. The scaphoid serves as link between each row; therefore, that is vulnerable to fractures. The distal row of carpal skeleton is strong attached to the base of the 2nd and third metacarpals, creating a resolved unit. All other structures (mobile units) relocate in relation to this stable unit. The flexor retinaculum, i beg your pardon attaches to the pisiform and hook of hamate ulnarly and to the scaphoid and also trapezium radially, creates the roof that the carpal tunnel.


The hand includes 5 metacarpal bones. Every metacarpal is defined as having a base, a shaft, a neck, and also a head. The an initial metacarpal bone (thumb) is the shortest and also most mobile. That articulates proximally v the trapezium. The various other 4 metacarpals articulate with the trapezoid, capitate, and also hamate at the base. Every metacarpal head articulates distally with the proximal phalanges of each digit.

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The hand contains 14 phalanges. Each digit includes 3 phalanges (proximal, middle, and distal), except for the thumb, i beg your pardon only has 2 phalanges. To avoid confusion, each digit is described by its surname (thumb, index, long, ring, and small) fairly than by number.



surface ar anatomy of the left hand. A is the dorsum of the left hand, and B is the palm of the left hand. Number 1 is the position of the extensor retinaculum, 2 is the place of the flexor retinaculum, 3 is the place of the head the the metacarpals, 4 is the ulnar artery, 5 is the radial artery, 6 is the level of the deep palmar arch, and also 7 is the level the the superficial palmar arch.