I. Introduction

Thus much we have seen just how the geology time range was constructed andduring that exact same period, dinosaurs to be discovered.

You are watching: Which of the following people developed the idea known as the scala naturae, or scale of nature?

A major part that this course will be the evolutionary relationshipsof dinosaurs and how the evolution of crucial innovations in teams of organismsmodifies the planet system.But what is evolution, exactly how do we know around it, how does evolutionfunction, and also how perform we know around in the past?

II. SCALA NATURAE

The western id in direct order - in 18th and also 19th century Europe andNorth America make worth trying to find order as a product that God a meaningfulpursuit.One very important aspect of the order was called the SCALANATURAE (Scale that Nature) - a ide attributed to Aristotle,ranking points from the inorganic to humans and angels.In this view the world was absolute and also full - a concept calledthe rule of PlenitudeConcept regarded Platonicconcept of pure ideals.Supported feudal social stratification as well as putting everythingin its ar - we still have solid vestiges of that concept.

III. Types problem

Through the 1600 - 1800"s the idea that "The path to God is through contemplatinghis works" was a romantic and also popular one i m sorry at the very least justified (ifnot motivated) much beforehand natural background work.Led to great attempts in ~ classifications.One an essential problem was - what space the units of life to beclassified?

IV. CarolusLinnaeus (Carl von Linné)

(1706-1778) to be a sweden naturalist who took that upon himselfto share the entire natural world.He became known as "God"s Registrar"Linnaeus recognized that interbreeding proved that there to be a naturalbreak between organisms that would easily interbreed and those the wouldnot. This to be a reality known fine by breeders of dogs and other domesticanimals.Linnaeus observed that there was a "unity the type". He verified thatthe straightforward unit that natural classification was not the individual but the"species", and also that they were recognizable by the fact that the individualswithin a types would freely interbreed.In various other words a species is hosted together through sex.In a huge work top top the sexual mechanism in plants Linnaeus showed thatthe "biological meaning of a species" stop true just too for animals.Nonetheless, in most cases varieties are known by the factthat members of a species tend to look much an ext like each various other than theydo come members of various other species.Thus, most varieties are identified by morphology. Testable byinterbreeding.

V. In 1758 Linnaeus published his cool opus: SYSTEMA NATURAE

In this occupational he outlined not only the known varieties of animals and also plants,but additionally what has come to be to be known as the "Linnean Hierarchy" of Taxonomiclevels.He noticed that while the fundamental unit was the species,that species could be grouped by similarity of structure into larger groups:genera, families, orders, classes, phyla, and also kingdoms (and others in between).We call any type of entity within this hierarchy a taxon (plural - taxa). Thusa varieties is a taxon as is a family. This is one inclusive hierarchy.In other words, kingdoms consist of and also contain classes, classesconsist of and also contain orders, assignment consist of and also contain families,families consist of and also contain genera, genera consist of and contain species.In this "Linnean Hierarchy" species
arehandled especially - a reality you should know and be acquainted with.Here is the Linnean power structure for us: THE LINNEAN hierarchy FORHUMANS Phylum Chordata class Mammalia bespeak Primates family members Hominidae Genus Homo species Homo sapiens

VI. The this classification method worked ended up being clear really quickly andit to be universally adopted. Yet WHY go IT job-related ?

Linnaeus catalogued species as if invariable, but the sometimes hybridsbetween types suggested to him they were not quite so fixed.In fact, return Linnaeus began by believing that specieswere addressed entities produced by God as is, later on in life he began to believeotherwise:that they were "children the time", capable of transformationin type though time � in various other words types could evolve.

VII. Jean BaptisteLamarck

(1744-1829) came up through the an initial reasonable theory of organic evolution.He known that:1) organisms readjust in their environment2) that they discontinuously readjust and reorganizeBut he can not could not resolve concept that extinction.Lamarck thought that species could readjust through time by passing on traitsacquired during an individual"s life to their offspring - the so-called"acquired characteristics".In this means all variation now and also in the previous were joined bya "Great Chain the Being". It was the Scala Naturae in motion.

VIII. Our friend GeorgesCuvier

(1769-1832) believed an extremely strongly the extinction to be real!His studies made the think all traits the organisms space designedto it is in a perfectly functional whole.He thought that over there were several different an easy plans (bauplans)of biology - different creations.He likewise believed the the history of life included separate periodsof creation and also periods of and extinctions - calamities - much like theFrench revolution that he survived.With this belief system Cuvier ran right right into Lamarck. Cuvier was a successfulpolitical animal and managed to have actually Lamarck ostracized.There were other evolutionary principles around, but like Lamarck"sideas, none take it hold since they lacked a clear and observable mechanism

IX. Darwin- Wallaceand natural Selection

Charles Darwin (photo)became the pearl naturalist on the H.M.S.Beagle. The saw numerous unfamiliar trends of geography and also organismalvariation that essential to it is in explained.In particular he provided the parallel in between species, geographyand adaptation and fittedness to environments.To Darwin, this came to be the central problem - exactly how did organismswithin a types become adapted to their functions in the world?He order this out long after his voyages through the Beagle inhis Originof species (On the beginning of types by method of herbal Selection,or the conservation of Favoured gyeongju in the battle for Life, 1859).Thomas MalthusOne crucial was ThomasMalthus
(1766-1834), an Englishpolitical economist concerned around the after-effects of poverty suchas he observed in London. A an important work to be his "Essay on the principle ofPopulation" (1798).Malthus proved that populaces if allowed to flourish uncheckedincrease in ~ a geometric rate.The people could no possibly hold so many, so herbal checksare in place. Poverty, disease, war, and also famine were every outcomes of increasingpopulation the in fact kept populaces of all organisms indigenous increasing.Many more organisms are born than have the right to possibly survive.Darwin took this ide and an unified it with a crucial observation.Variation that morphology and behavior to be a fact of life.The old idea was one of "Ideals" or "Types" that Platonicorigin. We still host to that informally. In the "typological" conceptof species, variation is some error approximately a true appropriate form.But Darwin recognized that variation to be at the core of whata types is. Over there is a statistically typical condition, yet each variantis as real as any type of other and also there is no best condition. This principle oftype is unfortunately still very much component of gyeongju thinking and has noplace in modern biology.Darwin to be espousing "populationist thinking".Darwin realized that this herbal variation resulted in differential survivalbased on that variation. For a given eco-friendly context some variantswould fair better than rather in the "struggle because that existence".Origin the SpeciesDarwin was a residential pigeon breeder (as a component of his research)and knew the humans had long taken benefit of herbal variation come selectfor breeds; this is artificial selection. Therefore Darwin dubbed his explanation"Natural Selection".Darwin noted clearly the reality that the most closely related (similar)species were often discovered closest together in geography.There are 5 parts to Darwin"s herbal Selection:1. Heredity of many features2. Heritable sport in the population3. Variation leads to differential rates in survival and also reproductivesuccess among the variations.4. Differential survival and also reproduction leads to a change inthe frequency the characters, bring about a shifting of mode within the species.5. If this procedure goes on lengthy enough, parent and daughter speciescan no longer interbreed.Remember: populations and types evolve, individuals do not.Two wonderful examples, studied by Darwin and still learned today,are the so-called "Darwin"s Finches", members the the family Geospizidaein the Galapagos Islands, and also the islands" large tortises.Book by Wallace AlfredRussell Wallace (1823-1913) come up through vitually the exact same conceptof natural selection much more or less separately through his studies onthe Malay archipelago. Darwin panicked because he to be not all set with hisbook yet!Both gave records at the exact same time and also the exact same subject in ~ theLinnean society meeting of 1858 (thanks to Charles Lyell and Joseph Hooker).By the way, the expression "survival of the fittest" comes originally not fromDarwin however rather from Herbert Spencer who embraced Darwin"s principles to ageneral progessionist approach (many say inappropriately), return Darwinadoptedthe ax in his later editions that the origin of varieties on advice fromWallace.

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X. However HOW do WE KNOW evolution OCCURS?

1. PRESENTLY TESTABLE2. STRAINS of BACTERIA adapting come changes3. IN previous - suspect OF INTERMEDIATES - birds - ARCHAEOPTERYXBerlin ArchaeopteryxWe know around evolution from 5 classes of stimulate in organisms:
ORDER IN characters (comparative anatomy)ORDER IN GENETICSORDER IN advance (embryology)ORDER IN geology RECORDORDER IN geographic DISTRIBUTIONS

XI. From our existing perspective climate we have the right to recognize at least three differentkinds that evolution

1. Microevolution2. Evolution of taxa3. Development of crucial innovationsEven in ~ this we deserve to recognize 2 modes:ANAGENESIS VS. CLADOGENESIS (seealso discussion in TransitionalVertebrate Fossils FAQ)Then prices of development are a various matter again:GRADUAL VS. PUNCTUATEDDARWIN"S GAPSAs one aside, the is worth noting that Darwin originally regardedthe fossil document as a bit of one embarrassment. In 1859, there were nofossil intermediate creates known between major groups from the fossil record.To controversy his suggest Darwin needed to insist that the fossil record was veryincomplete since of gaps in sedimentation. Of course this begs the questionof prices of evolution. It now seems that few of the obvious gaps aredue to very rapid adjust indeed.

XII. Currently what favors cladogenesis - the separating of lineages and also the proliferationof species?

IN other WORDS, WHAT FAVORS SPECIATION?1. Little numbers2. Isolation3. Extreme conditions (intense selection)

XIV. Evolution CREATES DIVERSITY - but EXTINCTION IS OPPOSITE

The geological document of diversity mirrors the all at once pattern that life.SO THIS IS where WE get WHAT WE check out IN THE geological RECORD- creation OF DIVERSITYFrom this comes:THE rule OF BIOTIC succession
of wilhelm SmithHOW, IN DETAIL, carry out WE work OUT THE EVOLUTIONARY relationships OF FOSSILAND current SPECIES?Go to lecture 5

References

http://www.astro.virginia.edu/~eww6n/bios/Aristotle.html(Eric"s Treasuretrove the Science: Aristotle the Stagira (384-322 BC) - homepage at http://www.astro.virginia.edu/~eww6n/)http://www.astro.virginia.edu/~eww6n/bios/Plato.html(Eric"sTreasuretrove the Science: Plato (ca. 427-ca. 347 BC) - residence page at http://www.astro.virginia.edu/~eww6n/)http://userwww.sfsu.edu/~rsauzier/Darwin.html(Glass Bead video game (Das Glasperlenspiel): Darwin, Charles (1809-82)) - homepage at: http://userwww.sfsu.edu/~rsauzier/Biography.html#Biology)http://www.clements.umich.edu/Photogal/bib/Darwin.html(Portraits indigenous the Photographic collections of the wilhelm L. ClementsLibrary: fifty percent length picture of Charles Darwin) - house page at: http://www.clements.umich.edu/Photogal/people.html)http://www.literature.org/Works/Charles-Darwin/(An Online literature Library: Charles Darwin - http://www.literature.org/)http://www.dickinson.edu/~nicholsa/Romnat/cuvier.htm(Contains and also English translation of Cuvier"s "Discourse top top the RevolutionaryUpheavals ~ above the surface of the Earth" through Ian Johnston.http://www.dickinson.edu/~nicholsa/Romnathttp://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/malthus.html(Enter Evolution: thomas Malthus (1766-1834) - http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/evolution.html)http://www.hyperhistory.com/online_n2/people_n2/persons2_n2/plato_ideas.html(History that the World: greece (Plato"s concept of ideas) - http://www.hyperhistory.com/)http://www.cc.columbia.edu/acis/bartleby/bartlett/423.html(PROJECT BARTLEBY ARCHIVE:Charles Darwin. 1809-1882 - http://www.columbia.edu/acis/bartleby/)http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/archaeopteryx/info.html(The Talk beginning Archive: All about Archaeopteryx by Cris Nedinhttp://www.talkorigins.org/)http://www.mq.edu.au/hpp/Ockham/z3602.html(Macquarie University: PHIL360 - later Medieval Philosophy; tape 2: Scotus"sproof the the presence of an boundless being).http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/evolution.html(Enter Evolution)http://landow.stg.brown.edu/victorian/economics/econov.htmlVictorian business economics (on, in part, cutting board Malthus)http://landow.stg.brown.edu/victorian/victov.html(Victorian Web)Go to Lecture 6BACKTO SYLLABUSBACKTO THE DINOSAUR and also THE background OF LIFE house PAGE