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seed, the characteristics reproductive human body of both angiosperms (flowering plants) and gymnosperms (e.g., conifers, cycads, and ginkgos). Essentially, a seed consists of a miniature undeveloped tree (the embryo), which, alone or in the agency of save food because that its early breakthrough after germination, is surrounding by a safety coat (the testa). Frequently small in size and also making negligible requirements upon their environment, seeds space eminently suitable to do a wide range of attributes the relationship of which room not always obvious: multiplication, perennation (surviving seasons of stress such as winter), dormancy (a state of arrested development), and dispersal. Pollination and also the “seed habit” are thought about the most important factors responsible because that the overwhelming evolution success the the flowering plants, which number much more than 300,000 species.

The superiority that dispersal by method of seed over the an ext primitive method involving single-celled spores, lies mainly in 2 factors: the stored reserve of nutrient material that provides the brand-new generation an excellent growing start and the seed’s multicell structure. The latter aspect provides ample possibility for the advancement of adaptations for dispersal, together as feather for wind dispersal, barbs, and also others.


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seed dispersal
Seeds and also their dispersal mechanisms.
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Economically, seed are important primarily since they are resources of a selection of foods—for example, the cereal grains, such together wheat, rice, and corn (maize); the seeds of beans, peas, peanuts, soybeans, almonds, sunflowers, hazelnuts, walnuts, pecans, and also Brazil nuts. Other advantageous products provided by seeds are abundant. Oils because that cooking, margarine production, painting, and also lubrication are accessible from the seed of flax, rape, cotton, soybean, poppy, castor bean, coconut, sesame, safflower, sunflower, and various grain grains. Essential oils are derived from such sources as juniper “berries,” used in gin manufacture. Stimulants are acquired from such resources as the seed of coffee, kola, guarana, and cocoa. Spices—from mustard and nutmeg seeds; indigenous the aril (“mace”) extending the nutmeg seed; indigenous the seeds and also fruits of anise, cumin, caraway, dill, vanilla, black pepper, allspice, and also others—form a huge group of financial products.