As the war dragged on, the Union"s advantages in factories, railroads, and also manpower placed the Confederacy at a an excellent disadvantage.




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New technologies reflecting America"s arising industrial greatness were sleek the polite War: the railroad, the steamboat, the telegraph, and the steam-powered printing push

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The American economic situation was recorded in shift on the night of the polite War. What had actually been an nearly purely farming economy in 1800 remained in the very first stages of an industrial transformation which would result in the united States coming to be one that the world"s leading industrial powers through 1900. However the starts of the industrial change in the prewar year was nearly exclusively limited to the regions north that the Mason-Dixon line, leaving much of the South much behind.In 1860, the southern was still predominantly agricultural, extremely dependent ~ above the sale of staples to a people market. By 1815, cotton was the most valuable export in the unified States; through 1840, it was worth much more than all other exports combined. But while the southern states produced two-thirds that the world"s it is provided of cotton, the southern had small manufacturing capability, about 29 percent of the railroad tracks, and only 13 percent of the nation"s banks. The south did experiment with using servant labor in manufacturing, yet for the most component it to be well satisfied with its farming economy.The North, through contrast, was well top top its way toward a commercial and also manufacturing economy, which would have actually a direct impact on its battle making ability. By 1860, 90 percent of the nation"s production output come from north states. The North created 17 times an ext cotton and woolen textiles 보다 the South, 30 times more leather goods, 20 times much more pig iron, and 32 times an ext firearms. The North produced 3,200 firearms to every 100 produced in the South. Only around 40 percent of the Northern populace was still involved in agriculture by 1860, as contrasted to 84 percent the the South.Even in the agricultural sector, northern farmers were out-producing their southerly counterparts in several necessary areas, as Southern farming remained labor extensive while northern farming became increasingly mechanized. By 1860, the free states had practically twice the value of farm machinery per acre and per farm yard worker together did the slave states, top to boosted productivity. Together a result, in 1860, the north states produced half of the nation"s corn, four-fifths of its wheat, and also seven-eighths of its oats. The industrialization the the northern states had actually an influence upon urbanization and also immigration. By 1860, 26 percent of the Northern population lived in metropolitan areas, led by the remarkable growth of cities such as Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, and Detroit, v their farm-machinery, food-processing, machine-tool, and also railroad devices factories. Only about a tenth of the southern populace lived in city areas.Free states attracted the vast majority of the tide of europe immigration v the mid-19th century. Completely seven-eighths of foreign immigrants resolved in cost-free states. As a consequence, the populace of the says that continued to be in the Union was about 23 million as compared to a population of 9 million in the says of the Confederacy. This translated straight into the Union having actually 3.5 million males that military age - 18 to 45 - as contrasted to 1 million because that the South. Around 75 percent of southerly males battled the war, as contrasted to about fifty percent of northern men. The southern lag in industrial advance did not result from any kind of inherent economic disadvantages. There was good wealth in the South, yet it was mainly tied increase in the slave economy. In 1860, the economic value of servants in the United states exceeded the invested value of every one of the nation"s railroads, factories, and also banks combined. ~ above the night of the civil War, noodle prices were at an all-time high. The Confederate leaders were confident the the prestige of noodle on the civilization market, particularly in England and also France, would carry out the southern with the diplomatic and military aid they needed for victory.As both the North and the southern mobilized for war, the loved one strengths and weaknesses of the "free market" and the "slave labor" economic systems ended up being increasingly clear - particularly in their capability to support and also sustain a battle economy. The Union"s industrial and economic volume soared during the battle as the North ongoing its quick industrialization to suppress the rebellion. In the South, a smaller commercial base, under rail lines, and also an agricultural economy based upon slave labor do mobilization of resources an ext difficult. Together the battle dragged on, the Union"s advantages in factories, railroads, and also manpower placed the Confederacy in ~ a good disadvantage.Nearly every sector of the Union economic situation witnessed boosted production. Mechanization of farming allowed a solitary farmer growing plants such as corn or wheat come plant, harvest, and process much more than was feasible when hand and animal strength were the only available tools. (By 1860, a threshing an equipment could thresh 12 time as lot grain per hour as might six men.) This mechanization ended up being even much more important as numerous farmers left home to enlist in the Union military. Those staying behind could proceed to regulate the farm v the use of labor-saving gadgets like reapers and also horse-drawn planters.Northern transportation sectors boomed during the conflict as well--particularly railroads. The North"s larger number of tracks and far better ability come construct and also move parts gave it a distinct advantage over the South. Union forces moving south or west come fight frequently rode to fight on trains travel on freshly lain tracks. In fact, together Northern pressures traveled further south come fight and occupy the Confederacy, the battle Department created the joined States armed forces Railroads, draft to build rails to lug troops and supplies as well as operating recorded Southern rail lines and also equipment. By war"s end, it was the world"s biggest railroad system.Other north industries--weapons manufacturing, leather goods, steel production, textiles--grew and improved as the war progressed. The very same was not true in the South. The pair disadvantages of a smaller commercial economy and having so lot of the war fought in the southern hampered Confederate growth and development. Southerly farmers (including cotton growers) were hampered in their capacity to offer their goods overseas as result of Union navy blockades. Union invasions right into the South led to the capture of southerly transportation and manufacturing facilities. The southern economy, when shaky throughout the war, flourished markedly worse in its later on years. The Emancipation Proclamation both enraged the south with that is promise of liberty for your slaves, and threatened the really existence the its main labor source. The economy ongoing to suffer during 1864 together Union militaries battered Confederate troops in the eastern and also western theaters. In the East, basic Ulysses S. Approve threw men and also materiel in ~ Robert E. Lee"s depleted and also increasingly desperate army. Provide took benefit of rail lines and new, improved steamships to relocate his soldiers and also had a seemingly countless supply the troops, supplies, weapons, and materials come dedicate come crushing Lee"s regularly ill-fed, ill-clad, and undermanned army. Despite the campaign eventually dropped into a stalemate in ~ Petersburg, Virginia, Grant might afford to, as he stated, "fight the out along this line if that takes every summer," if Lee could not.In the western theatre of the war, william T. Sherman"s Union troops laid waste to much of the Georgia countryside during the Atlanta Campaign and the succeeding "March to the Sea." Sherman"s projects inflicted massive damages to southerly industry, agriculture and infrastructure. His soldiers ruined rail lines and captured the major economic and transportation hub of Atlanta and the vital seaport of Savannah. Once Sherman famously telegraphed Lincoln in December 1864, "I beg to existing you together a Christmas gift the city that Savannah," his gift had "about twenty-five thousand bales the cotton." Sherman himself later approximated that this campaign, which eventually moved north and an in similar way impacted the Carolinas, brought about $100 million the destruction. An already troubled Confederate economic climate simply could not absorb such enormous losses and also survive.As the battle progressed, considerable and significant changes were occurring far from the battle lines. As soon as Lincoln ended up being president in march 1861, he confronted a separated nation, but additionally a Congress overcame by republic after many Southern autonomous members left to sign up with the Confederacy. Lincoln and congressional republic seized this chance to enact numerous pieces of regulation that had actually languished in Congress because that years due to strong Southern opposition. Many of this bills collection the course for the United states to emerge by war"s end as a nation with enormous economic potential and poised for a massive and also rapid westward expansion. As soon as Southerners left Congress, the war actually listed the North with an chance southerners from Congress, the battle actually provided the North with an possibility to establish and dominate America"s industrial and economic future.Foremost among these bills was the house Act, a renowned measure regularly questioned in Congress since the 1840s. This law provided totally free title to up to 160 acre of undeveloped commonwealth land external the 13 original colonies to anyone willing to live on and cultivate it. Southerners had for year opposed the idea due to the fact that it would certainly severely hamper any opportunity to expand slavery right into the areas where negotiation would be likely. In the North, "free soilers" had clamored because that the bill for decades, while abolitionists viewed it as a way to populate the West with little farmers vehemently protest to slavery"s expansion. Abraham Lincoln publicly stated his support while president-elect, stating, "In regards to the house bill, i am in favor of cutting the wild lands right into parcels, so that every negative man may have actually a home." he made good on his promise by signing the house Act right into law on might 20, 1862.In bespeak to make the farms much more efficient and also to help industries develop brand-new and better equipment, also as provide opportunities because that students in the "industrial classes," in 1862 conference passed the Morrill action (Land-Grant Colleges Act), by which each state to be granted land for the objectives of endowing agricultural and mechanical (A and also M) colleges. The function of the act to be "to teach together branches of discovering as are related to farming and the mechanic arts." This unprecedented nationwide investment in higher education additionally required instruction in armed forces tactics. Another significant initiative to be the Pacific Railway Act, authorized by chairman Lincoln on July 1, 1862. The transcontinental rail linking the East and also West had, favor the house bill, to be heavily debated by pre-war Congresses. Southerners want a railroad constructed along a southern route. Northerners, not surprisingly, wanted a northern route. When Southerners left congress at the outset that the war, republicans passed law that in reality dictated a so-called "middle route" with an east terminus in ~ Omaha and also a west one at Sacramento. The building and construction of the very first transcontinental railroad meant jobs for thousands in factories creating tracks and also tools and also those the labored for years come lay the tracks throughout rough terrain. It likewise meant the literal and symbolic linking that East and West (to the exclusion of the South) and decreased travel times for passengers and goods. It improved commercial opportunities, the construction of towns along both lines, a faster route to sectors for farm products, and also other economic and industrial changes.During the war, Congress likewise passed several significant financial bills the forever changed the American financial system. The Legal tender Act authorized the federal federal government to print and also use file money, called "greenbacks," to pay its bills and finance the war. Even though greenbacks were not backed by comparable amounts of gold and silver, creditors were compelled to expropriate them at face value. By the finish of the war, the government had published over $500 million in greenbacks, and also the American financial system"s strict reliance on transactions in yellow or silver ended. The National financial institution Act produced a nationwide banking mechanism to mitigate the variety of notes issued by separation, personal, instance banks and also create a solitary federal currency. The inner Revenue act eased inflation mainly by put excise counting on many luxury item such as tobacco and also jewelry. Much more famously, the first U.S. Revenue tax was enforced in July 1861, at 3 percent of all incomes over $800 as much as 10 percent for incomes over $100,000 to aid pay for the battle effort. For better or worse, the political approaches underlying the production of the Confederate claims of America, with its emphasis upon a solid state and a weak main government, coupled v its substantial investments in a slave-labor-based agricultural economy, intended that the South had neither the capacity nor the desire to construct the sort of industrial economic situation or central financial system forced to sustain a "modern" war. By contrast, the Union"s willingness and capacity to vastly boost the influence and also footprint of the federal government not only contributed directly come its military success in the war, however it likewise transformed many other areas of nationwide life, consisting of industrial, economic, agricultural, mechanical, and financial realms. Just put, the United states of America would certainly be a an extremely different nation today than had the war never been fought.

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If we are truly the world"s last remaining superpower, climate it is, at the very least partially, the substantial industrial and also economic expansion permitted by the Civil battle that enabled us to ascend to that duty in the very first place.This essay is taken from The Civil battle Remembered, released by the national Park Service and Eastern National. This richly illustrated handbook is available in plenty of national park bookstores or might be purchased virtual from east at www.eparks.com/store.