FREMONT, Ohio – Ohio is called the “Mother that Presidents.” seven United says Presidents were born in Ohio, and also an eighth lived most of his adult life in Ohio. Just Virginia can case such a wealthy presidential heritage.
State that Eight: A Bicentennial Tribute come Ohio’s Presidential tradition is an examination of the Ohioans who assumed the immense task of leading the nation, of those who aspired to the presidency, and also of the state’s duty in presidential politics.
Over that is 200-year history, Ohio has detailed more than its share of leaders to guide the country in times of war and peace.
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This exhibit opens up at the Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center, where it to be created. It will certainly be at the Hayes facility through Feb. 23, 2003.
It move on to the McKinley Museum & national Memorial in Canton from March-June 2003, and finally the wilhelm Howard Taft National historic Site in Cincinnati native July-October 2003.
Ohio has a proud presidential legacy, having created eight chef executives over its 200-year history. Together Ohio grew and also prospered in the 19th century, that wrested dominance of presidential national politics from Virginia.
Ohio’s an initial president was Virginia-born william Henry Harrison. In the food of 14 elections indigenous 1868 come 1920, 7 of the 10 presidents chosen were Ohioans.
These years to be Ohio’s presidential heyday. During this expectancy there were only three elections there is no an Ohio-born presidential candidate.
The Buckeye foundation. numerous factors added to Ohio’s impressive presidential success. Very first and foremost, these males were all exemplary individuals. All were well educated. 5 were Civil war heroes. 5 were attorneys.
All, v the exception of political novice Ulysses Grant, were great Republican Party leader who functioned their method up the political ladder, sustaining their party’s reasons of security tariffs, sound money, and civil rights. They go not have political enemies.
Microcosm of nation. gift from Ohio gave these guys several advantages. Ohio had actually the 3rd highest electoral vote total. Eminent Ohio historian George Knepper defines Ohio together a microcosm of the nation at the time. It had a diverse populace; it to be a mix of rural and also urban; that shared attributes of the East and the West; it was at the head of financial development; and also it was listed as a device of leaders.
A candidate who could win office in Ohio’s rough and also tumble elections to be a pressure to it is in reckoned v on the nationwide scene.
dried spell. Ohio has actually not had a presidential nominee because Warren G. Harding beat fellow Ohioan James M. Cox in the 1920 presidential election. Number of Ohioans have made strong runs in the last 82 years but have please short.
Several components have contributed to this absence of success. Candidates are now chosen because that vote-getting capacity in primary elections fairly than by party regulars in ~ a political convention – negating the toughness of Ohioans: their party loyalty. Ohio has actually dropped from 3rd to saturday in the number of electoral votes.
However, Ohio is quiet a solid force in national politics, and also it will continue to provide leaders that will shape the nation.
william HENRY HARRISON
In 1840, wilhelm Henry Harrison’s Whig Party was eager to acquire the White house for the very first time.
The scare of 1837 and the taking place recession, in addition to stories of Martin valve Buren’s extravagant lifestyle, made the ripe for defeat. The Whig Party to be badly split amongst eastern pendant of Daniel Webster, western proponents of Henry Clay, and also proslavery southerners The party necessary a solitary candidate who can lead the party and capture the White House.
The Whigs turned come 67-year-old wilhelm Henry Harrison of Ohio, who ran a distant second to young name VanBuren in 1837. By 1840, Harrison had actually been the end of nationwide public office for 12 year – in fact, he to be serving together clerk of the court of common pleas in Hamilton County, Ohio, when he got the nomination to operation for President.
Indian fighter. Harrison was a male of an extensive achievement. Native 1801 to 1813, he to be the territorial branch of Indiana Territory, i m sorry ran from Ohio to the Mississippi River. He got fame as an Indian fighter in 1811 by beating insurgent indians at the fight of Tippecanoe.
In the war of 1812 the attained the rank of major general and was the commander of American forces in the Northwest Territory.
From 1816 with 1828 he served two state in the U.S. House of Representatives, one ax in the Ohio Senate, and also one ax in the U.S. Senate.
Whig campaign strategists capitalized ~ above Harrison’s war record and gave him the nickname “Old Tippecanoe.” The an initial election slogan, “Tippecanoe and also Tyler Too,” was developed for Harrison and his to run mate john Tyler native Virginia.
A grassroots campaign with songs, slogans, and also rallies operated to perfection, h handing the presidency come Harrison and the Whigs in a landslide.
At 68, Harrison came to be the nine President that the United claims on march 4, 1841. He yielded the longest inaugural address in history outdoors ~ above a brutally cold day. Recording a cool that arisen into pneumonia, Harrison passed away one month right into his presidency. He was the an initial chief executive, management to dice in office.
ULYSSES S. GRANT
By 1869, the presidency was badly tarnished through the wrangling in between Andrew Johnson and Congress over who was in charge the Reconstruction. The resulting impeachment and also acquittal actors a pall end the nation. America was in search of a leader who can restore confidence and also heal the wounds resulted in by the polite War.
They turned come Ulysses Grant, the country’s biggest war hero because George Washington and the most renowned man in the nation.
In 1868 Ulysses give answered the contact of the Republican Party when he embraced the unanimous nomination ~ above the an initial ballot to operation for president even though he had never held an chosen office. He rode his popular to success over new York branch Horatio Seymour in a project with one predominant concern – reconstruction.
repair booster. The Republican Party promised to push the aggressive agenda passed by Congress; the Democrats supported the more lenient therapy of the south favored by Andrew Johnson.
Grant gone into office in 1869 with high really hopes that reconstruction would be successfully concluded and also that every citizens would live in peace, harmony, and also prosperity. He combated valiantly come enforce the rights of blacks in the south, but Democrats and also elements of his own party thwarted him.
Scandals. after ~ Grant’s straightforward re-election in 1872, scandals rocked the government. Members that Congress were implicated in shady stock dealings in the credit transaction Mobilier scandal. Number of of Grant’s appointees, consisting of his Secretary of War, were connected in bribery and fraud.
Grant’s popularity was undiminished through the people, but his party decided not to nominate him because that an unprecedented 3rd term.
Grant live 14 more years and also wrote maybe the ideal memoir of any type of American statesman.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES
When Rutherford B. Hayes left the governorship of Ohio after two terms in 1873, he and his household were looking forward to semi-retirement in Fremont, Ohio. However, his hiatus native public organization was short-lived as soon as he was convinced to operation for a third term as governor in 1875. As soon as Hayes won and also returned the office come the Republican Party, his surname was included to the lengthy list that presidential contenders for 1876.
Rutherford Hayes had actually the makings the a good presidential candidate He to be intelligent, having actually graduated first in his course at Kenyon College and earning a law degree from Harvard University.
His organization during the Civil war was impeccable; he served his party well as a two-term U.S Representative. Most importantly he had no enemies amongst the leaders of the Party.
Controversial election. bitter rivals James G Blaine and also Roscoe Conkling gotten in the 1876 Republican nationwide Convention in Cincinnati together front-runners because that the presidential nomination.
For the first six ballots there was a stalemate v neither candidate able come secure a bulk On the saturday ballot, inert swung to everyone’s 2nd choice, Ohio’s favorite son, Rutherford B. Hayes.
His opponent, brand-new York governor Samuel Tilden, was also a reformer. The choice was the many controversial in American history. That took practically four months because that Rutherford B. Hayes come be asserted the winner by a distinct electoral commission appointed by Congress. Democrats cry foul and dubbed the new president “His Fraudulancy” and also “Rutherfraud.”
In despite the of the daunting circumstances Hayes was identified to return respect to the office the the presidency after ~ turmoil surrounding the Johnson and also Grant administrations.
Hayes extracted promises of enforcement that civil rights for blacks indigenous white leaders and also he bravely provided the veto power to store Democrats in congress from undermining civil legal rights of blacks in the South.
As an advocate of a single term presidency, he determined not to operation for re-election. He to be gratified when other Republican and Ohioan James Garfield won the election of 1880.
In retirement Hayes functioned for jail reform, higher education, Indian rights, black rights, and also philanthropic causes. The is the only president who died in Ohio.
JAMES A. GARFIELD
James A Garfield had actually the many humble origins of the Ohio presidents. He to be the fifth and last boy of a negative farmer who passed away when the future president was simply 2.
Garfield worked his way through college as a part-time teacher, janitor, and carpenter, an initial at the western Reserve Eclectic institute (now Hiram College) then at Williams College, wherein he i graduated at 25 in 1856.
That year he went back to the west Reserve academy to teach timeless languages and eventually became its president. Garfield, a state senator and lay minister, to be an impassioned orator, that spoke the end eloquently versus slavery before the polite War.
At the outbreak the hostilities he increased a regiment and was i was delegated a colonel. He offered with difference at the war of Shiloh and also Chickamauga and also rose to the rank of significant General.
popular in Congress. Heeding the call of his party, Garfield i agree to run for conference in 1862, defeating a well-known Democrat. During nine consecutive state he served on countless important committees and also as decimal leader.
On Jan. 13, 1880, the Ohio legislature elected Garfield come a hatchet in the U. S. Senate start in 1881.
Before he can take his seat, Garfield emerged as the i can not qualify Republican nominee because that president when the leading candidates Ulysses Grant and also James G. Blaine deadlocked because that 35 ballots. Garfield dominated on the 36th ballot together a weaken candidate.
His opponent, Civil war hero general Winfield Scott Hancock, was a formidable candidate who shared the same views top top all major issues except for tariffs. Garfield achieved a narrow success while maintaining a low profile conducting the very first front porch project from his residence in Mentor, Ohio.
Assassinated. Garfield’s young administration came come an abrupt end on July 2, 1881, once a disgruntled office-seeker, Charles Guiteau, shot the president at a Washington, D.C., train station. Garfield lingered near fatality for 79 days, ultimately succumbing to an infection on Sept. 19, 1881.
In 1884, the Republican Party lost the White residence for the first time because 1856. Grover Cleveland defeated James G. Blaine in a contest between two men who did not fight in the civil War.
In 1888, Republicans want a Civil war veteran come run against Cleveland, who was ripe for loss after vetoing a veteran pension bill. They found their candidate in Benjamin Harrison, who – like Ohioans Rutherford Hayes and also James Garfield – was no a favourite going into the convention yet was the 2nd choice of all.
He deserve endorsements by years of offer Republican candidates through his skills as an orator. He likewise had the Harrison name in his favor: His grandfather was President william Henry Harrison.
former porch campaign. He made decision to conduct a front porch campaign from his residence in Indianapolis, in the layout of James Garfield’s successful run in 1880. The incumbent Grover Cleveland stayed at the White House and also didn’t campaign at all however managed to win the famous count by more than 100,000 votes. However, Harrison winner in the Electoral college 233 come 168 as soon as Cleveland failure to bring his house state, brand-new York, through its 36 votes.
Harrison was the very first internationalist president, encouraging collaboration within the west Hemisphere and also negotiating reciprocal trade agreements with countless nations. Naval expansion, defense of forestlands, and civil organization reforms were hallmarks that the administration.
In 1892, democrats nominated Grover Cleveland to shot to unseat Benjamin Harrison in a return of 1888. The choice was a referendum on the regulation passed through the Republican conference in 1890.
Neither candidate campaigned in deference come Mrs. Harrison’s decreasing health. Cleveland defeated Harrison handily, making the the only president to reclaim the office.
Harrison returned to Indianapolis, reestablished his successful legislation career, remarried, and started a second family.
Of all the Ohio presidents, william McKinley is the many misunderstood and also misrepresented.
Until recently, historians dismissed him together an indecisive and mediocre man, put in office by the wheeling and dealing that Cleveland industrialist Marcus Hanna.
More recent scholars have actually been friendlier come him, arguing that his format suffered just when compared to the of the dynamic Theodore Roosevelt. He was conciliatory rather than confrontational, sought consensus instead of conflict, and promoted harmony.
consensus builder. as an attorney, prosecutor, U.S. Representative, and Ohio governor, that seasoned his craft in the crucible that Ohio politics, working through farmers, industrialists, metropolitan workers, and businessmen. By 1896 he to be a nationwide political force and also the consensus leader that the Republican Party.
McKinley won his party’s nomination to operation for chairman on the an initial ballot. The Democrats made decision 36-year-old william Jennings Bryan to confront McKinley The populist Bryan was a spellbinding orator that crusaded for complimentary coinage of silver and versus eastern industrialists.
McKinley blunted the force of Bryan’s silver worry by favoring a gold and also silver coinage in combination with high tariffs ~ above imports to protect American industry. He promised to keep jobs, promote prosperity, and administer “a complete dinner pail” for all.
mental the Maine. McKinley winner by much more than 600,000 votes and took office in 1897 expecting to concentrate on domestic affairs, but nearly every one of his an initial term was taken increase by international affairs. The an initial trouble spot to be Cuba, which was fighting for its self-reliance from Spain.
McKinley test to solve the trouble through diplomacy, yet he was forced to declare war after the battleship Maine to be blown up in Havana harbor in 1898. The Spanish-American war was short and also resulted in salvation of Cuba, the Philippines, and also Samoa.
The Philippine Insurrection and Boxer Rebellion followed conveniently on the heels that the Spanish-American War.
After basic re-election, McKinley provided a speech in Buffalo, N.Y., ~ above Sept. 5, 1901. One assassin’s cartridge fired the following day finished William McKinley’s dreams – he died on Sept. 14, 1901.
william HOWARD TAFT
William Howard Taft was Ohio’s many reluctant U.S. President. His greatest failings were an overwhelming desire to you re welcome others and also the fact that he was no Theodore Roosevelt.
His father, Alphonso Taft, was a very successful judge, room secretary in the approve administration, and ambassador. Wilhelm Howard Taft complied with in his father’s footsteps and became an completed attorney and also jurist in his very own right.
Roosevelt protégé. he was contents to be a judge because that the rest of his life yet was persuaded by his wife and brothers to expropriate a collection of federal government positions that led him to the presidency. In 1904, chairman Theodore Roosevelt carried him come Washington to offer as Secretary that War and also his an individual troubleshooter.
Much come the delight of the Taft family, Roosevelt anointed Taft to succeed him as president. He obtained the Republican Party nomination top top the first ballot in 1908 and handily defeated William Jennings Bryan by much more than a million votes.
Taft lost support that the steady wing that his own party, led by previous President Roosevelt, once he did no veto greater tariffs and fired Gifford Pinchot indigenous the department of the inner . Already the heaviest chairman at an ext than 300 pounds, Taft put on even an ext weight as he consoled himself with food.
When Taft obtained the Republican nomination in 1912 in a heated challenge with Roosevelt, the former President formed the Bull Moose Party and ran against his former protégé in a three-way race. Democrat Woodrow Wilson defeated them both and ended the many miserable component of Taft’s life.
In 1921, president Warren Harding appointed Taft to his dream job, cook Justice of the can be fried Court. He is the only male to offer as both President and also Chief Justice.
WARREN G. HARDING
The last Ohio president, Warren G Harding, had a comfortable upbringing together the earliest of eight kids of two physicians. After ~ graduating from college at 17, he had brief stints together a schoolteacher, legislation student, and also insurance salesman.
Harding discovered his niche when he purchased the Marion Star, a struggling weekly newspaper. With the aid of his wife, Florence, the turned it into a thriving daily file supporting the Republican Party.
Climbed political ladder. Harding provided his an excellent looks, oratorical skills, and also family and also professional relationships to launch his political career in 1899. He functioned his way up the political ladder from state senator come lieutenant governor and finally U.S. Senator by being a unifying force within the Republican Party.
In 1920, the party had actually no evident candidate because that president after ~ the fatality of front-runner Theodore Roosevelt in 1919. Ohio politics boss, harry M. Daugherty, maneuvered behind the scenes to for sure Harding’s nomination ~ above the 10th ballot after the at an early stage leaders faded.
The Democrats likewise nominated one Ohio newspaperman, Gov. James M Cox indigenous Dayton, that was saddled through Woodrow Wilson’s unpopularity and also the country’s wariness the the league of Nations and the Versailles Treaty.
Harding performed a prior porch project reminiscent the Garfield, Harrison, and McKinley. The reassuring candidate readily available the nation a “return to normalcy” and a retreat from internationalism.
well-known president. Harding and also his to run mate, Calvin Coolidge, won in the biggest landslide to that time, garnering much more than 60 percent that the vote, which consisted of women because that the very first time in a national election.
His administration was marred by the appointments the friends that betrayed his trust: Secretary of State Albert loss took bribes in the Teapot Dome scandal; Veterans bureau Chief Charles Forbes took millions of dollars in kickbacks; and Attorney basic Harry M. Daugherty ran a corruption justice department.
President Harding was no party come the frauds, but his management was badly tarnished. On Aug. 2, 1923, an worn down Harding passed away of heart failure in mountain Francisco in ~ the elevation of his popularity.
To see the exhibit: The State that Eight exhibition is open currently through Feb. 23, 2003 in ~ the Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center, Spiegel Grove, Fremont, Ohio; 1-800-998-PRES; www.rbhayes.org. Hrs are 9 a.m. Come 5 p.m., Monday with Saturday; noon come 5 p.m., Sunday and also holidays; closed Christmas and new Year’s day.
The McKinley Museum & nationwide Memorial in Canton hosts the exhibition from March-June 2003. The memorial is located at 800 McKinley Monument Drive, N.W.; 330-455-7043 or www.mckinleymuseum.org.
Hours room 9 a.m. Come 5 p.m., Monday through Saturday; noon to 5 p.m., Sunday. It is closed major holidays.
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The william Howard Taft National historic Site in Cincinnati will screen the exhibit from July-October 2003. The revitalized birthplace the the president is located at 2038 Auburn Ave., and is open everyday from 8 a.m. To 4 p.m., other than for major holidays. Because that directions, contact 513-684-3262.