By the end of this section, you will:Explain the causes and also effects of the seven Years’ battle (the French and Indian War)

Suggested Sequencing

Prior to reading this Narrative, students have to read the Albany plan of Union Narrative. This Narrative must be complied with by the Wolfe at Quebec and the tranquility of 1763 Narrative.

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The French and Indian war was the climactic battle between great Britain and also France because that imperial regulate of north America. The war started in 1754, once a young Virginia militia officer called George Washington involved in a skirmish through a party the French soldiers, and it ended six years later when the governor-general of brand-new France surrendered to a British military at Montreal. The dispute was component of a much larger worldwide struggle known as the seven Years’ battle that started in 1756 and ended in 1763 amongst Britain, France, and several various other European nations. Although the French and also Indian battle was only one of several Anglo-French disputes in north America, the was superior for the scale and its influence on the stays of American Indians and also colonists.

Unlike plenty of earlier Anglo-French wars, the French and also Indian battle originated in north America, in a remote an ar known together the Ohio country. In the early 1750s, this land ended up being the facility of a three-way contest among American Indians, the French, and the British. A loose confederacy that Indian nations overcame by the Delawares, Shawnees, and Senecas lived in the Ohio country after moving from other regions taken end by colonists. There they discovered a new homeland wealthy with organic resources, specifically the pets that supplied the hair trade. British and also French traders completed with each various other for this business. The ind generally wanted British trade goods, which to be cheaper and more plentiful, but they had much better relations with the French due to the fact that of brand-new France’s efficient missionary work and also diplomacy amongst Indian countries living follow me the an excellent Lakes. Regardless of their choice for the French or British, the Ohio Indians mutual a usual desire to keep European soldiers and also settlers the end of their territory.

Tensions in the Ohio country heated up in 1753, when the French sent troops to fortify the passage from Lake Erie come the Ohio River. This move was intended come cement the French insurance claim to the an ar and to open up a course through the internal of the continent that would connect the French colonies in Canada and also Louisiana. Virginia and also Pennsylvania had their very own designs top top the Ohio country. Hair traders from both colonies were active there, and both asserted the Ohio nation by right of their initial royal charters. Pennsylvania, which lacked a militia due to the fact that of that Quaker origins, was sluggish to mobilize versus the French, yet Virginia acted much more forcefully. That is governor, Robert Dinwiddie, to be an investor in the Ohio Company, a group of entrepreneurs who hoped to profit by opened western lands to settlers. When he learned the the French were occupying the Ohio country, he sent out twenty-one-year-old militia officer George Washington to drive them out.

In his very first mission come the Ohio country in 1753, Washington yielded a diplomatic warning come the French, informing them they were encroaching on brothers territory. The French police officers he met politely rebuffed him, and he to be disturbed through the initiatives he witnessed amongst the French to win over the Ohio Indians, including his very own guide, an significant Seneca called Tanaghrisson. In feather 1754, governor Dinwiddie sent Washington ago to the Ohio country, this time v an army of 2 hundred militiamen and orders to defend Virginia’s claim to the Forks of the Ohio (modern Pittsburgh). Because that a guide, Washington again relied ~ above Tanaghrisson, who led him come a party of French soldiers close to the brothers encampment.

In one ill-advised surprised dawn attack, Washington and his men eliminated several French soldiers and also wounded your commander, Ensign Joseph Coulon de Jumonville. Washington believed he had prevented a French attack on his own men, yet Jumonville insisted he had actually only been on a diplomatic mission, moving a article from his command at the French post Fort Duquesne. His protests were cut short when Tanaghrisson stepped forward and killed him with a tomahawk punch to his skull, a move most likely intended to force the British into a much more aggressive stance against the French.

After Jumonville’s death, a shaken Washington had actually his men develop a stockade the he named fort Necessity, in anticipation of a counterattack from ft Duquesne. A superior force of French soldiers and also Indian warriors soon surrounded the outnumbered and inexperienced Americans. The French and also Indians fired top top the garrison from covered positions, demoralizing Washington’s men and also exhausting his supplies. Washington determined his just option was to surrender, and he claimed he unwittingly signed short articles of capitulation, composed in French, that explained him as responsible for the “assassination” of Jumonville. This inadvertent admission became the basis because that the French explanation of war versus Britain.


This engraving by an unknown artist depicts an night council of George Washington at ft Necessity. Take it a closer look in ~ the details the artist includes. That is attending the council? What sources are easily accessible to Washington and also his men?

In 1755, the British went back to the Ohio country, this time v an army of regulars and also colonists commanded by basic Edward Braddock, who Washington offered as an aide-de-camp. Braddock intended come lay siege to fort Duquesne and also then move north to assault the French at ft Niagara, which guarded the passage from Canada to the Ohio country. Encumbered through artillery and also a supply train, Braddock’s troops slowly cut a roadway through dense wilderness from ft Cumberland top top the grape max River toward fort Duquesne. After cross the Monongahela river on the morning of July 9, Braddock’s army collided through a French and Indian pressure that took benefit of high ground and cover provided by the surrounding woodland to rain your fire on the British. Braddock suffered a deadly wound and also Washington narrowly escaped fatality himself. The devastation of Braddock’s military left the Ohio nation firmly in regulate of the French. Indians allied with the French released a destructive war versus settlements follow me the Appalachian frontier from Pennsylvania to Virginia.


For the next three years, the british struggled to restore their position in the Ohio country. Advocated to colonel the a regiment of Virginia soldiers, Washington worked feverishly to build fortifications and restore protection along the frontier. Like countless other colonial Americans, he disliked the British policy that gave seniority to British military officers over American officers, nevertheless of their particular ranks. In 1758, the worked very closely with British general John Forbes together Forbes plan a new expedition into the Ohio country. Washington want Forbes to follow Braddock’s course west, however Forbes determined instead to reduced a brand-new road west from the Susquehanna River. This course favored Pennsylvania’s insurance claim to the Ohio country, and Washington resented Forbes because that it.

In November 1758, Forbes’s military forced the French to abandon fort Duquesne, however Washington took tiny pleasure in the victory and also soon went back to his home at mount Vernon come resume his civilian life. Over the food of five years, he had actually learned much about military leadership and frontier warfare, but his ambitions to come to be a commissioned officer in the brothers regular military had to be thwarted much more often than aided by his british superiors. The had likewise lost several battles in the early component of the war, yet nonetheless, he arised as a war hero through a cultivation continental reputation.

Shortly after Forbes’s victory, the British constructed Fort Pitt top top the ruins of fort Duquesne. This act, together with the brothers occupation of various other French short articles in the good Lakes region, angered the Ohio Indians since they had been promised in 1758 that the British would certainly evacuate your homelands after the war was won. The Indians were now completely dependent on the British for their profession goods, and the roads developed by Braddock and also Forbes ended up being routes for settlers to move right into the region.

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Violence erupted in 1763 once Indians throughout the good Lakes attacked western british posts and settlements. This conflict, named Pontiac’s battle after the Ottawa chief that led the siege the Detroit, caused the brother to issue the Proclamation that 1763, i m sorry prohibited floor sales and settlement west of the Appalachians and also kept soldiers stationed on the frontier to restore peace in between Indians and also colonists. That policy compounded the disappointed of homesteaders such as George Washington, who thought the Crown to be denying them accessibility to the soil they had helped conquer and also had to be promised together a bounty because that their battle service. Britain had actually won the French and also Indian War and driven the French out of phibìc America, but as a result, its empire suffered internal tensions the were to cause revolution. An excellent Britain also amassed a massive war debt during the conflict and also expected the nests to begin paying more taxes as a re-publishing of your defense.