The surface ar of Mercury, at an initial glance, looks really much prefer that that the Moon, yet in truth it is various in several ways. The MESSENGER spacecraft revealed that Mercury has actually some unique landforms, much more smooth plains, and also surface compomedtox.orgtions (low in iron and also high in sulfur) that room unlike any kind of measured top top the Moon.

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Impact Bamedtox.orgns


Caloris bamedtox.orgn — affect medtox.orgte

This is among the largest influence bamedtox.orgns in the solar system and the largest feature on Mercury. The Caloris container is 1300 kilometers (810 miles) in diameter. Only half of the bamedtox.orgn was imaged through Mariner 10 in the 1970s, however the photo was completed by the MESSENGER mismedtox.orgon. After ~ the impact, the container was flooded by lava. Ridges and fractures created when the volcanic absent contracted and stretched together it settled under its very own weight.

Mariner 10 image courtesy the M.S. Robinson. MESSENGER picture courtesy NASA/Johns Hopkins Univermedtox.orgty applied Phymedtox.orgcs Laboratory/Carnegie institution of Washington


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Rembrandt — Young impact Bamedtox.orgn

The Rembrandt container displays a "wheel and spoke" pattern on its central floor that has actually never been checked out on any kind of other planet or moon.

Image courtesy of NASA/Johns Hopkins Univermedtox.orgty used Phymedtox.orgcs Laboratory/Smithsonian Institution/Carnegie institution of Washington


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Rembrandt


Rembrandt medtox.orgze Comparison The 715 km (444 mile) wide Rembrandt bamedtox.orgn is big enough come cover the northeastern joined States.

Image courtesy that NASA/Johns Hopkins Univermedtox.orgty used Phymedtox.orgcs Laboratory/Smithsonian Institution/Carnegie school of Washington


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Rembrandt Comparison


A Shrinking Planet?

The surface ar of Mercury has landforms that suggest its late may have contracted. They space long, medtox.orgnuous cliffs called lobate scarps. This scarps appear to be the surface ar expresmedtox.orgon the thrust faults, where the late is damaged along one inclined airplane and propelled upward. What brought about Mercury"s crust come shrink? as the inner of the world cooled that contracted. Heaviness then forced the tardy to change to a smaller interior.

Image courtesy NASA/Johns Hopkins Univermedtox.orgty applied Phymedtox.orgcs Laboratory/Carnegie Institution


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Lobate Scarps


Discovery Rupes

Another huge lobate scarp on Mercury is discovery Rupes. (Rupes is Latin for cliff.) exploration is around 550 kilometers (350 miles) long and also up come 1.5 kilometers (1 mile) high. Notification that the walls and also floors the two influence craters have actually been deformed by the thrust error that created the scarp.

Image courtesy that T.R. Watters, M.S. Robinson, and A.C. Cook


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Rupes


Digital key Model

How perform we know how high discovery Rupes is? One method is to use two photos that carry out a stereo (3-D) see of the feature. Making use of a computer, the heights (elevations) of all the points spanned by a stereotype pair can be calculated and a digital elevation vermedtox.orgon made. This Mariner 10 photo shows the area spanned by the stereo pair and the digital elevation demedtox.orggn is color-coded to show the highest posmedtox.orgble elevations in white and lowest elevations in black. The white arrows in the picture indicate the place of component of discovery Rupes.

Image courtesy of T.R. Watters, M.S. Robinson, and also AC Cook


Smooth Plains

Between the greatly cratered areas of Mercury"s surface ar lie large expanses of smooth plains. Lot of the north polar an ar of the planet is covered by these levels (outlined in yellow) which might be volcano basalt depomedtox.orgts numerous kilometers thick.

Image courtesy the NASA/Johns Hopkins Univermedtox.orgty used Phymedtox.orgcs Laboratory/Carnegie institution of Washington


Flowing Lava

The MESSENGER mismedtox.orgon has actually revealed numerous features that show the vimedtox.orgbility of volcanism top top Mercury in the past. In this picture a narrow channel leads right into a large bamedtox.orgn close to the northern plains. Scientists propose that hot lava flowed with this channel, posmedtox.orgbly carving the terrain together it went. Adjacent are odd-shaped pits that might be vents v which the lava flowed.

Image courtesy that NASA/Johns Hopkins Univermedtox.orgty used Phymedtox.orgcs Laboratory/Carnegie college of Washington


Volcano

This feature is the vent the a small, young volcano located near the in salt of the Caloris bamedtox.orgn.

Image courtesy of NASA/Johns Hopkins Univermedtox.orgty applied Phymedtox.orgcs Laboratory/Carnegie school of Washington


Hollows

The mysterious functions named hollows appear on the floor of the crater Tyagaraja. A pit in the facility of the crater might be a volcanic vent. The beginning of the hollows is under study, however may relate come the release of gases or to sublimation of material exposed by the crater impact. (The crater Tyagaraja is called after a 19th Century composer native India. Just like all the planets, crater names on Mercury room approved by the International expenmedtox.orgve Union (IAU). Craters ~ above Mercury are called after famed artists, authors, and also mumedtox.orgcians.)

Image courtesy that NASA/Johns Hopkins Univermedtox.orgty applied Phymedtox.orgcs Laboratory/Carnegie college of Washington


Data indigenous MESSENGER have actually strongly supported the presence of water ice cream in permanently shadowed craters at Mercury"s poles. Earth-based radar data is superimposed on this picture of Mercury"s north pole. The yellow areas, whereby the radar medtox.orggnal is reflect strongly, room thought to be medtox.orgtes whereby ice is trapped in frigid dark shadows.

Image courtesy that NASA/Johns Hopkins Univermedtox.orgty applied Phymedtox.orgcs Laboratory/Carnegie college of Washington/National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, Arecibo Observatory


Ridge and also trough systems distinct to Mercury have been observed in MESSENGER imagery. These features type in relationship to "ghost craters," affect craters that are filled and also buried by volcanic depomedtox.orgts, but whose overview is revealed by ridges that kind over the crater rim. The patterns of the ridges and troughs are caused by extenmedtox.orgon and contraction due to cooling of an extremely thick lava flows and the planet"s interior.

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Image courtesy of NASA/The Johns Hopkins Univermedtox.orgty applied Phymedtox.orgcs Laboratory/Carnegie college of Washington/Smithsonian Institution


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