The IUPAC device of nomenclature assigns a properties suffix to this classes. The –e ending is gotten rid of from the name of the parent chain and is changed -anoic acid. Since a carboxylic acid group must always lie in ~ the end of a carbon chain, the is constantly is provided the #1 place position in numbering and it is not crucial to encompass it in the name.

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Many carboxylic acids are called by the common names. These names were chosen by medtox.orgistry to usually define a source of where the link is found. In common names of aldehydes, carbon atoms close to the carboxyl group are often designated by Greek letters. The atom surrounding to the carbonyl duty is alpha, the following removed is beta and so on.


FormulaCommon NameSourceIUPAC NameMelting PointBoiling Point
HCO2H formic acid ants (L. Formica) methanoic acid 8.4 ºC 101 ºC
CH3CO2H acetic acid vinegar (L. Acetum) ethanoic acid 16.6 ºC 118 ºC
CH3CH2CO2H propionic acid milk (Gk. Protus prion) propanoic acid -20.8 ºC 141 ºC
CH3(CH2)2CO2H butyric acid butter (L. Butyrum) butanoic acid -5.5 ºC 164 ºC
CH3(CH2)3CO2H valeric acid valerian root pentanoic acid -34.5 ºC 186 ºC
CH3(CH2)4CO2H caproic acid goats (L. Caper) hexanoic acid -4.0 ºC 205 ºC
CH3(CH2)5CO2H enanthic acid vines (Gk. Oenanthe) heptanoic acid -7.5 ºC 223 ºC
CH3(CH2)6CO2H caprylic acid goats (L. Caper) octanoic acid 16.3 ºC 239 ºC
CH3(CH2)7CO2H pelargonic acid pelargonium (an herb) nonanoic acid 12.0 ºC 253 ºC
CH3(CH2)8CO2H capric acid goats (L. Caper) decanoic acid 31.0 ºC 219 ºC

Example (Common Names space in Red)


Naming carboxyl groups included to a ring

When a carboxyl group is added to a ring the suffix -carboxylic acid is included to the surname of the cyclic compound. The ring carbon attached to the carboxyl group is provided the #1 location number.


Naming carboxylates

Salts the carboxylic acids are named by composing the name of the cation complied with by the name of the acid v the –ic mountain ending changed by one –ate ending. This is true because that both the IUPAC and also Common nomenclature systems.

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In the situation of molecules containing a carboxylic acid and aldehydes and/or ketones functional teams the carbonyl is named as a "Oxo" substituent.

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In the case of molecule containing a carboxylic mountain an amine functional team the amine is called as one "amino" substituent.